This paper investigates the fire behavior of a regular and an energy storage gypsum board with latent heat storage characteristics when exposed to fire temperatures. Gypsum board samples, with and without a microencapsulated paraffin mixture phase change material, are studied at material and board level. At the material level, measurements of the physical properties, that is, mass and effective thermal conductivity, as a function of temperature, as well as differential scanning calorimetry experiments, in inert and oxidized environments, are performed. At the board level, specimens are inserted into a preheated oven, and the temperature evolution at preselected board locations is recorded. Both experimental procedures reveal significant information concerning the evolution of the various thermochemical processes taking place inside the gypsum boards during their heating. Results indicated the different fire behavior of the samples at different temperature ranges. At temperatures up to 300°C, the materials act as a fire retardant because of the dehydration of the free and chemically bound water contained in the gypsum boards. On the other hand, at temperatures higher than 300°C, the temperature rise within the samples is enhanced and accelerated because of the oxidation of the phase change material and their external finishing. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.