Military lands in the United States are managed according to an ecosystem approach outlined in the individual installation Integrated Natural Resources Management Plans (INRMPs). There are 368 INRMPs currently being implemented in the United States. The INRMP continues to gain increasing importance as a key installation document, and there are initiatives under way to continue to improve them and their implementation. Best practices for INRMP implementation are emerging, and some examples are discussed in this article. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.