Over the past several years, a number of Army ranges have been studied for environmental impacts. Military training activities at these ranges have included the use of artillery, mortars, grenades, ground-to-ground and airtoground rockets, small arms, and pyrotechnics. Studies have focused on the buildup of energetic residues at the firing positions and impact range areas, as well as at explosive, ordnance, and demolition (EOD) and open burn/open detonation (OB/OD) sites. A comprehensive review of these studies suggests several key issues must be addressed for successful characterization of military ranges, such as development of a site conceptual model, understanding of the fate and transport of energetics, attention to soil and groundwater sampling methodologies, and modification of analytical methods. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.