Triad case study: Former small arms training range



The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (US ACE) used the Triad approach to expedite site characterization of contaminated soil at the Former Small Arms Evergreen Infiltration Training Range in Fort Lewis, Washington. The characterization was designed to determine if surface soils contain significant concentrations of metals, with the focus on collecting sufficient data for determining appropriate future actions (i.e., risk analysis or soil remediation). A dynamic sampling and analytical strategy based on rapid field-based analytical methods was created in order to streamline site activities and save resources while increasing confidence in remediation decisions. Concurrent analysis of soil samples during the demonstration of method applicability (DMA) used both field portable X-ray fluorescence (FPXRF) and laboratory methodologies to establish a correlation between FPXRF and laboratory data. Immediately following the DMA, contaminated soil from the impact berm was delineated by collecting both FPXRF data and fixed laboratory confirmation samples. The combined data set provided analytical results that allowed for revisions to the conceptual site model for the range and directed additional sample collection activities to more clearly determine the extent and distribution of soil contamination. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Reprinted from Remediation Volume 15, Number 1.