A comprehensive review is presented on extracts of a lichen, oakmoss (Evernia prunastri), that are used in the fragrance industry. Analytical aspects are discussed in detail, from both qualitative and quantitative standpoints, mainly in relation to the industrial processing of the lichen. It is shown that more than 170 constituents have been identified so far in oakmoss extracts, including 47 depsides or depside-derived compounds and 25 triterpenes or steroids. A survey of industrially relevant synthetic products with an oakmoss odour is included. Toxicology issues related to the use of oakmoss extracts in cosmetics and fragrance formulations are critically reviewed. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.