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Cross-adaptation of a model human stress-related odour with fragrance chemicals and ethyl esters of axillary odorants: gender-specific effects
Version of Record online: 7 APR 2009
Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Flavour and Fragrance Journal
Volume 24, Issue 5, pages 209–218, September/October 2009
How to Cite
Wysocki, C. J., Louie, J., Leyden, J. J., Blank, D., Gill, M., Smith, L., McDermott, K. and Preti, G. (2009), Cross-adaptation of a model human stress-related odour with fragrance chemicals and ethyl esters of axillary odorants: gender-specific effects. Flavour Fragr. J., 24: 209–218. doi: 10.1002/ffj.1927
- Issue online: 16 AUG 2009
- Version of Record online: 7 APR 2009
- Manuscript Accepted: 23 FEB 2009
- Manuscript Revised: 22 DEC 2008
- Manuscript Received: 28 JUL 2008
- Haarmann and Reimer (now Symrise), USA
- axillary odour;
- fragrance chemicals;
- gender differences;
- odour perception
The human axillae have a characteristic odour that is comprised of or generated from a mixture of C6–C11 normal, branched, hydroxy- and unsaturated acids (and other compounds). We used ethyl esters of one of these acids and a palette of fragrance compounds (tested individually) to evaluate the effectiveness of these chemicals to reduce the overall olfactory impact of a model of human stress-related odour (SRO) by cross-adaptation (adaptation to one odorant can reduce sensitivity to other odorants). Sensory volunteers provided hedonic and intensity ratings of the SRO and of each of the potential cross-adapting agents prior to 2.5 min of induced olfactory adaptation to each agent. Across adaptation, possible cross-adaptation was evaluated by intermittent evaluations of the perceived intensity of the SRO. We determined that some potential cross-adapting agents did reduce the impact of the SRO; however, the same chemicals were not necessarily effective for male and female SRO. Indeed, the list of effective chemicals depended upon the gender of the donor of the SRO and the gender of the sensory volunteer, suggesting a gender-specific response to both the SRO-stimuli used and the fragrance chemicals used to cross-adapt it. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.