In cities, flood waves may propagate over street surfaces below which lie complicated pipe networks used for storm drainage and sewage. The flood and pipe flows can interact at connections between the underground pipes and the street surface. The present paper examines this interaction, using the shallow water equations to model the flood wave hydrodynamics. Sources and sinks in the mass conservation equation are used to model the pipe inflow and outflow conditions at bed connections. We consider the problem reduced to one dimension. The shallow water equations are solved using a Godunov-type wave propagation scheme. Wave speeds are modified in the wave propagation algorithm to enable flows to be simulated over nearly dry beds and dry states. First, the model is used to simulate vertical flows through finite gaps in the bed. Next, the interaction of the vertical flows with a dam break flow is considered for both dry and wet beds. An efflux number, En, is defined based on the vertical efflux velocity and the gap length. Comparisons are made with numerical predictions from STAR-CD, a commercial Navier–Stokes solver that models the free-surface motions, and a parameter study is undertaken to investigate the effect of the one-dimensional approximation of the present model, for a range of non-dimensional efflux numbers. It is found that the shallow flow model gives sensible predictions at all time provided En<0.5, and for long durations for En>0.5. Dam break flow over an underground connecting pipe is also considered. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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