• high-order methods;
  • LES;
  • turbulence models;
  • discrete filters;
  • spectral difference;
  • channel flow


The combination of a high-order unstructured spectral difference (SD) spatial discretization scheme with sub-grid scale (SGS) modeling for large-eddy simulation is investigated with particular focus on the consistent implementation of a structural mixed model based on the scale similarity hypothesis. The difficult task of deriving a consistent formulation for the discrete filter within the SD element of arbitrary order led to the development of a new class of three-dimensional constrained discrete filters. The discrete filters satisfy a set of selected criteria and are completely local within the SD element. Their weights can be automatically computed at run time from the number of solution points within each element and the expected filter cutoff length scale. The novel discrete filters can be applied to any SGS model involving explicit filtering and to a broad class of high-order discontinuous finite element numerical schemes. The code is applied to the computation of turbulent channel flows at three Reynolds numbers, namely Reτ = 180, 395, and 590 (based on the friction velocity uτ and channel half-width δ). Results from computations with and without the SGS model are compared against results from direct numerical simulation. The numerical experiments suggest that the results are sensitive to the use of the SGS model, even when a high-order numerical scheme is used, especially when the grid resolution is kept relatively low and mostly in terms of resolved Reynolds stresses. Results obtained using existing filters based on the projection of the solution over lower-order polynomial bases are also shown and demonstrate that these filters are inadequate for SGS modeling purposes, mostly because of their inability to enforce the selected cutoff length scale with sufficient accuracy. The use of the similarity mixed formulation proved to be particularly accurate in reproducing SGS interactions, confirming that its well-known potential can be realized in conjunction with state-of-the-art high-order numerical schemes.Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.