Cinnamon extract inhibits angiogenesis in zebrafish and human endothelial cells by suppressing VEGFR1, VEGFR2, and PKC-mediated MAP kinase

Authors

  • Rishipal R. Bansode,

    Corresponding author
    • Center for Excellence in Post Harvest Technologies, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Kannapolis, North Carolina
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  • TinChung Leung,

    1. Biomedical/Biotechnology Research Institute, Department of Biology, North Carolina Central University, Nutrition Research Center, Kannapolis, North Carolina
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  • Priscilla Randolph,

    1. Center for Excellence in Post Harvest Technologies, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Kannapolis, North Carolina
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  • Leonard L. Williams,

    1. Center for Excellence in Post Harvest Technologies, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Kannapolis, North Carolina
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  • Mohamed Ahmedna

    1. Center for Excellence in Post Harvest Technologies, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Kannapolis, North Carolina
    2. Department of Health Sciences, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar
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Correspondence Rishipal R. Bansode, 500 Laureate Way, Suite 4222, Center for Excellence in Post Harvest Technologies, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, North Carolina Research Campus, Kannapolis, NC 28081. Tel: +1 704 250 5707; Fax: +1 704 250 5709; E-mail: rbansode@ncat.edu

Abstract

Angiogenesis is a process of new blood vessel generation and under pathological conditions, lead to tumor development, progression, and metastasis. Many bioactive components have been studied for its antiangiogenic properties as a preventive strategy against tumor development. This study is focused on the effects of cinnamon extract in modulating the pathway involved in angiogenesis. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were treated with cinnamon extract at a concentration of 25 μg/mL for 1, 3, or 6 h followed by treatment with phorbol ester (TPA) at a concentration of 10 nmol/L to induce mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) expression. Results show that cinnamon extract inhibited TPA-induced phosphorylation of MAPK and AKT in a dose-dependent manner. Gene expression results in HUVEC showed that cinnamon extract treatment inhibited TPA induction of protein kinase C, PKCα and PKCη messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in a dose-dependent manner along with suppression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1/Flt1) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2/KDR/Flk1) mRNA expression. Cinnamon extract was administered to zebrafish embryos during gastrulation at 6–8 h post fertilization (hpf). The embryos were observed for changes in morphology, toxicity, and blood vessel development. The intersegmental vessels in the zebrafish embryos were attenuated and underdeveloped at an effective cinnamon extract dose of 250 μg/mL compared with the DMSO-treated control. Exposure to cinnamon extract for 36 h resulted in gross morphological deformities. The results suggest the effect of cinnamon extract on angiogenesis is mediated by PKC-dependent phosphorylation of MAPK.

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