Comparative sensory and proximate evaluation of spontaneously fermenting kunu-zaki made from germinated and ungerminated composite cereal grains



Solakunmi O. Oluwajoba, Department of Microbiology, School of Science, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. Tel: +234-1-807-445-1026; E-mail:


This study evaluated the sensory properties, proximate composition, and overall consumer acceptability of kunu-zaki using germinated and ungerminated Sorghum bicolor (sorghum), Pennisetum americanum (millet), and Digitaria exilis (acha) cereal grains. The three cereal grains were used in nongerminated and germinated composite and noncomposite proportions coded A (Acha), S (Sorghum), M (Millet), AS (Acha–Sorghum), AM (Acha–Millet), SM (Sorghum–Millet), ASG (Acha–Sorghum Germinated), AMG (Acha–Millet Germinated), and SMG (Sorghum–Millet Germinated). Proximate analysis determined the moisture content, ash, crude fiber, fat, and crude protein content of the fermented grains. The 9-point hedonic scale was used to judge the sensory parameters of taste, color, and aroma. The paired comparison test was used to judge consumer preference between kunu-zaki made from germinated grains and the ungerminated counterpart. Scores were statistically analyzed using the Kruskal–Wallis test in the SPSS analytical software package. Panelists ranked the ASG-coded drink highest in terms of taste and aroma, the AMG-coded drink highest in terms of color. SM ranked least in terms of taste; SMG ranked least in terms of aroma; and AM ranked the least in terms of color. Preference for each parameter was significantly different (< 0.001). Panelists ranked overall preference for the drinks from the most liked to the least liked in the order ASG>AMG>A>AS>S>M>SMG>AM>SM. The overall preference for the drinks was also significantly different (< 0.001). Panelists pairing both ungerminated drinks with the germinated drinks ranked the ungerminated drink AS as most preferred in terms of taste, color, and aroma above its germinated counterpart ASG with preference not significantly dependent on the parameters (= 0.065 > 0.05). Ungerminated AM was also preferred above the germinated counterpart AMG in terms of taste, color, and aroma with preference not significantly dependent on parameters (= 0.055 > 0.05). However, panelists showed preference for the taste and aroma of the germinated drink SMG but more preference for the color of the ungerminated drink SM with preference significantly dependent on the parameters (= 0.028 < 0.05). Crude fiber values were higher – 11.3%, 13.1%, and 17.37% for SMG, AMG and ASG, respectively. Germination increased %Fat values slightly but the %Ash was relatively stable in both germinated and ungerminated drinks. Addition of germinated acha cereal grains to either sorghum or millet prior to fermentation offers desirable sensory and nutritional quality attributes in kunu-zaki.