Hydration kinetics of direct expanded tef flour breakfast cereals in water and milk


  • W. K. Solomon

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Food Technology and Process Engineering, Haramaya University, Haramaya, Ethiopia
    2. Department of Consumer Sciences, University of Swaziland, Luyengo, Swaziland
    • Correspondence

      W. K. Solomon, Department of Consumer Sciences, University of Swaziland, Swaziland. Tel: +268 251 76373002; Fax: +268 252 74441;

      E-mail: wsolomon@uniswa.sz (or) solowkj@yahoo.com

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Hydration kinetics of tef flour breakfast cereals extruded at barrel temperatures of 110, 130, and 150°C was investigated by hydrating them in water and whole milk at 25°C (±1°C). The normalized Weibull model described the rehydration characteristics of the extrudates in water and milk adequately (R2 = 0.98–0.99). Water absorption rate was significantly (P < 0.05) influenced by barrel temperature where extrudates processed at 150°C barrel temperature exhibited high water absorption rate followed by those extruded at 130 and 100°C, respectively. Hydration rate and equilibrium moisture content were higher for samples hydrated in water than those in milk. In view of the values of the shape parameter β, the hydration process is predominantly controlled by diffusion (β = 0.40–0.51) for samples extruded at 110°C whereas external resistance to mass transfer dominated (β = 0.60–0.73) those extruded using 150 and 130°C. Extrudates processed at 130 and 150°C exhibited better hydration characteristics. Thus, these temperature ranges could be used to produce extruded products from tef.