Sensory evaluation and consumer acceptance of naturally and lactic acid bacteria-fermented pastes of soybeans and soybean–maize blends
Article first published online: 20 DEC 2013
© 2013 The Authors. Food Science & Nutrition published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Food Science & Nutrition
Volume 2, Issue 2, pages 114–131, March 2014
How to Cite
Food Science & Nutrition 2014; 2(2): 114–131
- Issue published online: 13 MAR 2014
- Article first published online: 20 DEC 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 12 NOV 2013
- Manuscript Revised: 21 OCT 2013
- Manuscript Received: 9 APR 2013
- Norwegian Programme for Development, Research and Education (NUFU)
Vol. 2, Issue 3, 298, Article first published online: 13 MAY 2014
- Drivers of liking;
- lactic acid bacteria fermentation;
- natural fermentation;
- preference mapping;
- soybean pastes
Fermented pastes of soybeans and soybean–maize blends were evaluated to determine sensory properties driving consumer liking. Pastes composed of 100% soybeans, 90% soybeans and 10% maize, and 75% soybeans and 25% maize were naturally fermented (NFP), and lactic acid bacteria fermented (LFP). Lactic acid bacteria fermentation was achieved through backslopping using a fermented cereal gruel, thobwa. Ten trained panelists evaluated intensities of 34 descriptors, of which 27 were significantly different (P < 0.05). The LFP were strong in brown color, sourness, umami, roasted soybean- and maize-associated aromas, and sogginess while NFP had high intensities of yellow color, pH, raw soybean, and rancid odors, fried egg, and fermented aromas and softness. Although there was consumer (n = 150) heterogeneity in preference, external preference mapping showed that most consumers preferred NFP. Drivers of liking of NFP samples were softness, pH, fermented aroma, sweetness, fried egg aroma, fried egg-like appearance, raw soybean, and rancid odors. Optimization of the desirable properties of the pastes would increase utilization and acceptance of fermented soybeans.