Sensory evaluation and consumer acceptance of naturally and lactic acid bacteria-fermented pastes of soybeans and soybean–maize blends

Authors

  • Tinna A. Ng'ong'ola-Manani,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Food Science and Technology, Lilongwe University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Lilongwe, Malawi
    2. Department of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Science, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway
    • Correspondence

      Tinna A. Ng'ongo'la-Manani, Lilongwe University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Bunda College Campus, PO Box 219, Lilongwe, Malawi. Tel: +265 1 277 260/+265 1 277 222; Fax: +265 1 277 364; E-mail: tinnamanani@yahoo.co.uk

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  • Agnes M. Mwangwela,

    1. Department of Food Science and Technology, Lilongwe University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Lilongwe, Malawi
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  • Reidar B. Schüller,

    1. Department of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Science, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway
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  • Hilde M. Østlie,

    1. Department of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Science, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway
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  • Trude Wicklund

    1. Department of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Science, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway
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Errata

This article is corrected by:

  1. Errata: Sensory evaluation and consumer acceptance of naturally and lactic acid bacteria-fermented pastes of soybeans and soybean–maize blends Volume 2, Issue 3, 298, Article first published online: 13 May 2014

Abstract

Fermented pastes of soybeans and soybean–maize blends were evaluated to determine sensory properties driving consumer liking. Pastes composed of 100% soybeans, 90% soybeans and 10% maize, and 75% soybeans and 25% maize were naturally fermented (NFP), and lactic acid bacteria fermented (LFP). Lactic acid bacteria fermentation was achieved through backslopping using a fermented cereal gruel, thobwa. Ten trained panelists evaluated intensities of 34 descriptors, of which 27 were significantly different (P < 0.05). The LFP were strong in brown color, sourness, umami, roasted soybean- and maize-associated aromas, and sogginess while NFP had high intensities of yellow color, pH, raw soybean, and rancid odors, fried egg, and fermented aromas and softness. Although there was consumer (n = 150) heterogeneity in preference, external preference mapping showed that most consumers preferred NFP. Drivers of liking of NFP samples were softness, pH, fermented aroma, sweetness, fried egg aroma, fried egg-like appearance, raw soybean, and rancid odors. Optimization of the desirable properties of the pastes would increase utilization and acceptance of fermented soybeans.

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