Rice antioxidants: phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, tocopherols, tocotrienols, γ-oryzanol, and phytic acid
Article first published online: 21 JAN 2014
© 2014 The Authors. Food Science & Nutrition published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Food Science & Nutrition
Volume 2, Issue 2, pages 75–104, March 2014
How to Cite
Food Science & Nutrition 2014; 2(2): 75–104
- Issue published online: 13 MAR 2014
- Article first published online: 21 JAN 2014
- Manuscript Accepted: 25 NOV 2013
- Manuscript Revised: 18 NOV 2013
- Manuscript Received: 2 OCT 2013
- European Union
- Operational Competitiveness Programme. Grant Number: FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-022692
- Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology. Grant Number: PTDC/AGR-AAM/102529/2008
- 2006. Anthocyanin composition in black, blue, pink, purple, and red cereal grains. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54:4696–4704. , , and .
- 2009. Purification and characterization of antioxidative peptides derived from rice bran protein hydrolysates. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 228:553–563. , , , , and .
- 1999. Phytate degradation during traditional cooking: significance of the phytic acid profile in cereal-based vegetarian meals. J. Food Compos. Anal. 12:161–167. , , and .
- 2000. Triterpene alcohol and sterol ferulates from rice bran and their anti-inflammatory effects. J. Agric. Food Chem. 48:2313–2319. , , , , , , et al.
- 2003. Genotype and environment effects on tocopherol, tocotrienol, and γ-oryzanol contents of Southern U.S. rice. Cereal Chem. 80:446–449. , and .
- 2003. Comparison of three spectrophotometric methods for the determination of ?-oryzanol in rice bran oil. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 375:1254–1259. , , , and .
- 2009. Changes in phenolic acids and antioxidant activity in Thai rice husk at five growth stages during grain development. J. Agric. Food Chem. 57:4566–4571. , , and .
- 2011. Studies on the extraction and purification of phytic acid from rice bran. J. Food Compos. Anal. 24:1057–1063. , , , , , , et al.
- 2012a. Growth-inhibitory effects of pigmented rice bran extracts and three red bran fractions against human cancer cells: relationships with composition and antioxidative activities. J. Agric. Food Chem. 60:9151–9161. , , , , and .
- 2012b. Anti-oxidative analysis, and identification and quantification of anthocyanin pigments in different coloured rice. Food Chem. 135:2783–2788. , , , and .
- 2007. Analysis of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity with H4IIE cells of three different rice grain varieties. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 225:887–893. , , , , and .
- 2013. Characteristics and antioxidative activity of the acetone-soluble and -insoluble fractions of a defatted rice bran extract obtained by using an aqueous organic solvent under subcritical conditions. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 77:624–630. , , and .
- 2013. Flavonoids from the grains of C1/R-S transgenic rice, the transgenic Oryza sativa spp. japonica, and their radical scavenging activities. J. Agric. Food Chem. 61:10354–10359. , , , , , , et al.
- 2007. Characterization of antioxidant alkaloids and phenolic acids from anthocyanin-pigmented rice (Oryza sativa cv. Heugjinjubyeo). Food Chem. 104:1670–1677. , and .
- 2001. Rice bran oil and γ-oryzanol in the treatment of hyperlipoproteinaemias and other conditions. Photother. Res. 15:277–289. , and .
- 2009. Comparative study of phenolic compounds in different Brazilian rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes. J. Food Compos. Anal. 22:405–409. , , , and .
- 2011. Stability of rice bran oil in terms of oryzanol, tocopherols, tocotrienols and sterols. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 88:1001–1009. , , and .
- 2012. Determination of antioxidant property and their lipophilic and hydrophilic phenolic contents in cereal grains. J. Funct. Foods 4:906–914. , , , , , , et al.
- 1994. Separation of vitamin E and γ-oryzanols from rice bran by normal-phase chromatography. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 71:1211–1217. , and .
- 2003. Characterization of triterpene alcohol and sterol ferulates in rice bran using LC-MS/MS. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51:3260–3267. , , and .
- 2008. Is the in vitro antioxidant potential of whole-grain cereals and cereal products well reflected in vivo? J. Cereal Sci. 48:258–276. , , and .
- 2007. Characterization of antioxidant compounds of red and white rice and changes in total antioxidant capacity during processing. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 51:1006–1019. , , , , , , et al.
- 2009. Assessment of the contents of phytic acid and divalent cations in low phytic acid (LPA) mutants of rice and soybean. J. Food Compos. Anal. 22:278–284. , , , , and .
- 2008. Phytic acid and inositol phosphates in raw flours and infant cereals: the effect of processing. J. Food Compos. Anal. 21:343–350. , , , and .
- 2010. Antioxidant activity of colored rice bran obtained at different milling yields. J. Oleo Sci. 59:563–568. , , , and .
- 2004. Rice kernel phenolic content and its relationship with antiradical efficiency. J. Sci. Food Agric. 84:1235–1240. , and .
- 2008. Evaluating the constraints and opportunities for sustainable rice production in Cameroon. Res. J. Agric. Biol. Sci. 4:734–756.
- 2010. Some factors affecting concentration of the aroma compound 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline in two fragrant rice cultivars grown in South China. Front. Agric. China 4:1–9. , , , and .
- 2011. Decrease in rice aroma after application of growth regulators. Agron. Sustain. Dev. 31:349–359. , , and .
- 2014a. Effect of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) on phenolic acids, flavonoids, tocopherols, tocotrienols, γ-oryzanol and antioxidant capacities of rice (Oryza sativa L.). J. Cereal Sci. 59:15–24. , , , , , , et al.
- 2014b. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) phenolic compounds under elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration. Environ. Exp. Bot. 99:28–37. , , , , , , et al.
- 2003. Food composition data. Production management and use. 2nd ed. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. , and .
- 2013. Antioxidant activity and nutritional quality of traditional red-grained rice varieties containing proanthocyanidins. Food Chem. 138:11153–11161. , , , , , and .
- 1999. Analysis of free and bound phenolics in rice. Food Sci. Technol. Res. 5:74–79. , , and .
- 2008. Tocopherols, tocotrienols and γ-oryzanol contents in japonica and indica subspecies of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivated in Brazil. Cereal Chem. 85:243–247. , , , and .
- 2010. Metabolomic and functional genomic analyses reveal varietal differences in bioactive compounds of cooked rice. PLoS One 5:e12915. , , , , , and .
- 2009. Influence of cooking on anthocyanins in black rice (Oryza sativa L. japonica var. SBR). J. Agric. Food Chem. 57:1908–1914. , , and .
- 2011. Comparative evaluation of the antioxidant potential of infant cereals produced from purple wheat and red rice grains and LC-MS analysis of their anthocyanins. J. Agric. Food Chem. 59:12330–12341. , , and .
- 2011. Quantification of tocopherols, tocotrienols, and γ-oryzanol contents and their distribution in some commercial rice varieties in Taiwan. J. Agric. Food Chem. 59:11150–11159. , and .
- 2012. Quantification of polyphenolic content and bioactive constituents of some commercial rice varieties in Taiwan. J. Food Compos. Anal. 26:122–127. , and .
- 2000. Characterization of potentially chemopreventive phenols in extracts of brown rice that inhibit the growth of human breast and colon cancer cells. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev. 9:1163–1170. , , , , and .
- 2001. Antioxidant activity of anthocyanin extract from purple black rice. J. Med. Food 4:211–218. , , , , , and .
- 2008. Extraction of α-tocopherol and γ-oryzanol from rice bran. Food Sci. Technol. 41:1417–1424. , , , , , and .
- 2012. Simultaneous determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in rice using solid-phase extraction and RP-HPLC with photodiode array detection. J. Sep. Sci. 35:1603–1611. , , , and .
- 2012. γ-Oryzanol, tocol and mineral compositions in different grain fractions of giant embryo rice mutants. J. Sci. Food Agric. 92:1468–1474. , , , , , , et al.
- 2012. Antioxidant activities and phenolic compounds of pigmented rice bran extracts. J. Food Sci. 77:C759–C764. , , , , and .
- 2005. Radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant activity of the E vitamer fraction in rice bran. J. Food Sci. 70:C208–C213.
- 2010. Variation and correlation analysis of flavonoids and carotenoids in Korean pigmented rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars. J. Agric. Food Chem. 58:12804–12809. , , , , , , et al.
- 2011. Antioxidants and antioxidant activity of several pigmented rice brans. J. Agric. Food Chem. 59:193–199. , , , and .
- 1997. Contents of phytic acid and minerals of rice cultivars from Korea. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 2:301–303. , , , , and .
- 2007. Iron, zinc and phytic acid content of selected rice varieties from China. J. Sci. Food Agric. 87:504–510. , , , , and .
- 2011. Bioactive compounds in rice during grain development. Food Chem. 127:86–93. , and .
- 2011. Chemical constituents, dietary fiber, and γ-oryzanol in six commercial varieties of brown rice from Taiwan. Cereal Chem. 88:463–466. , , and .
- 2012. The effect of in vitro digestion on steryl ferulates from rice (Oryza sativa L.) and other grains. J. Agric. Food Chem. 60:6123–6130. , and .
- 1990. Effect of local food processing on phytate levels in cassava, cocoyam, yam, maize, sorghum, rice, cowpea, and soybean. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38:1580–1585. , , , and .
- 2011. Phenolic compounds in raw and cooked rice (Oryza sativa L.) and their inhibitory effect on the activity of angiotensin I-converting enzyme. J. Cereal Sci. 54:236–240. , , , , and .
- 2006. Content of γ-oryzanol and composition of steryl ferulates in brown rice (Oryza sativa L.) of European origin. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54:8127–8133. , and .
- 2011. Phytochemicals and antioxidant capacities in rice brans of different color. J. Food Sci. 76:C117–C126. , , , and .
- 2012. Chemical indices, antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory effect of extracts of the medicinal rice “njavara” and staple varieties: a comparative study. J. Food Biochem. 37:369–380. , , , , , and .
- 2012. Chemical compositions, phytochemicals, and antioxidant capacity of rice bran, rice bran layer, and rice germ. APCBEE Procedia 2:73–79. , , and .
- 2013. Effects of parboiling, storage and cooking on the levels of tocopherols, tocotrienols and γ-oryzanol in brown rice (Oryza sativa L.). Food Res. Int. 50:676–681. , , , , , and .
- 2006. Total antioxidant capacity of spices, dried fruits, nuts, pulses, cereals and sweets consumed in Italy assessed by three different in vitro assays. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 50:1030–1038. , , , , , and .
- 2013. Anthocyanin content and antioxidant capacity in bran extracts of some Thai black rice varieties. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 48:300–308. , , , , and .
- 2000. Isolation and identification of novel tocotrienols from rice bran with hypocholesterolemic, antioxidant, and antitumor properties. J. Agric. Food Chem. 48:3130–3140. , , , and .
- 1989a. Chemical studies on novel rice hull antioxidants. 2. Identification of isovitexin, a C-glycosyl flavonoid. J. Agric. Food Chem. 37:316–319. , , , and .
- 1989b. Studies on changes in fatty acid composition and content of endogenous antioxidants during γ irradiation of rice seeds. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 66:105–108. , , , and .
- 2007. Density alteration of nutrient elements in rice grains of a low phytate mutant. Food Chem. 102:1400–1406. , , , , and .
- 1993. Identification and quantitation of γ-oryzanol components and simultaneous assessment of tocols in rice bran oil. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 70:301–307. , , , , , and
- 1998. High performance liquid chromatographic determination of anthocyanin pigments in some varieties of black rice. J. Food Drug Anal. 6:729–736. , , and .
- 2012. Quality characterisation and estimation of phytochemicals content and antioxidant capacity of aromatic pigmented and non-pigmented rice varieties. Food Res. Int. 46:334–340. , , , and .
- 2008. Isolation of anthocyanin from black rice (Heugjinjubyeo) and screening of its antioxidant activities. Korean J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 36:55–60. , , and .
- 2010. Antioxidant effects of anthocyanins-rich extract from black sticky rice on human erythrocytes and mononuclear leukocytes. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 9:8222–8229. , , and .
- 2013. Comparative analysis of physicochemicals and antioxidative properties in new red rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Gunganghongmi). J. Crop Sci. Biotechnol. 16:63–68. , , , , , , et al.
- 2009. Total phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidant capacity in rice grain and their relations to grain color, size and weight. J. Cereal Sci. 49:106–111. , , , , and .
- 2011. Physicochemical and antioxidative properties of red and black rice varieties from Thailand, China and Sri Lanka. Food Chem. 124:132–140. , , , and .
- 2007. Quantitation of tocotrienol and tocopherol in various rice brans. J. Agric. Food Chem. 55:461–466. , , , , and .
- 2009. Antioxidant activity of commonly consumed cereals, millets, pulses and legumes in India. Indian J. Biochem. Biophys. 46:112–115. , , and .
- 2013. Quantification of flavonoids in black rice by liquid chromatography-1 negative electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. J. Agric. Food Chem. 60:11723–11732. , , and .
- 2007. Determination of phenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity in fruits and cereals. Talanta 71:1741–1751. , , and .
- 1994. Composition of anthocyanin pigments in aromatic red rice and its wine. J. Jpn. Soc. Food Sci. Technol. 41:519–522. , , , and .
- 2004. Analysis of phenolic compounds in white rice, brown rice, and germinated brown rice. J. Agric. Food Chem. 52:4808–4813. , , and .
- 2011. Gamma-oryzanol content, phenolic acid profiles and antioxidant activity of rice milling fractions. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 233:577–585. , and .
- 2010. High performance liquid chromatographic analysis of phenolic compounds and their antioxidant activities in rice varieties. Food Sci. Technol. 43:1325–1330. , , , and .
- 2011. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of rice. Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol. 54:371–377. , and .
- 2013. Antioxidant properties of rice grains with light brown, red and black pericarp colors and the effect of processing. Food Res. Int. 50:698–703. , , , , , and .
- 2011. Distribution of phytic acid and mineral elements in three indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars. J. Cereal Sci. 54:116–121. , , , , , and .
- 2007. Difference of phytic acid content and its relation to four protein composition contents in grains of twenty-nine japonica rice varieties from Jiangsu and Zhejiang Provinces, China. Rice Sci. 14:311–314. , , , and .
- 2001. Antioxidant activity of tocopherols, tocotrienols, and γ-oryzanol components from rice bran against cholesterol oxidation accelerated by 2,2-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49:2077–2081. , , and .
- 2007. Identification of phenolic compounds isolated from pigmented rice and their aldose reductase inhibitory activities. Food Chem. 101:1616–1625. , , and .
- 2011. Different localization patterns of anthocyanin species in the pericarp of black rice revealed by imaging mass spectrometry. PLoS One 7:e31285. , , , and .
- 2007. Quantification of vitamin E and γ-oryzanol components in rice germ and bran. J. Agric. Food Chem. 55:7308–7313. , , , and .
- 2009. Antioxidant properties of polysaccharide fractions with different molecular mass extracted with hot-water from rice bran. Carbohydr. Polym. 78:570–575. , , , , , , et al.
- 2006. Separation, purification and identification of antioxidant compositions in black rice. Agric. Sci. China 5:431–440. , , , , , , et al.
- 2009. Antioxidant activities of the rice endosperm protein hydrolysate: identification of the active peptide. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 229:709–719. , , , , , and .
- 2010. Phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity of black rice bran of different commercially available varieties. J. Agric. Food Chem. 58:7580–7587. , , , and .
- 2012. Variation and distribution of vitamin E and composition in seeds among different rice varieties. Acta Agron. Sin. 38:55–61. , , , , , , et al.
- 2004. The distribution of phenolic acids in rice. Food Chem. 87:401–406. , , , and .