This article introduces the radical approach of applying alkaline anion-exchange membranes (AAEMs) to meet the current challenges with regards to direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). A review of the literature is presented with regards to the testing of fuel cells with alkaline membranes (fuelled with hydrogen or methanol) and also to candidate alkaline anion-exchange membranes for such an application. A brief review of the directly related patent literature is also included. Current and future research challenges are identified along with potential strategies to overcome them. Finally, the advantages and challenges with the direct electrochemical oxidation of alternative fuels are discussed, along with how the application of alkaline membranes in such fuel cells may assist in improving performance and fuel efficiency.