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Keywords:

  • Electrochemical Capacitor;
  • High-voltage Electrolyte;
  • Lithium-ion Capacitor;
  • Nanohybrid Capacitor;
  • Li4Ti5O12

Abstract

Conventional electric double layer capacitors (EDLC) designed with two symmetrical activated carbon electrodes can deliver substantially more power than similar size Li-ion batteries. There is presently a major effort to increase the energy density of EDLC s up to a target value in the vicinity of 20-30 Wh kg–1.The present review article deals with the recent contributions to get this high energy density and new approaches that have been made to increase the withstanding voltage of the EDLCs. Important alternative approach to meet this goal that is under serious investigation is to develop an asymmetric (hybrid) capacitors. Hybrid capacitor systems are the promising approach to meet the goal to effectively increase the energy density. The investigation is to develop hybrid capacitors has been initiated by Li-ion capacitors. And, now Nanohybrid capacitor certainly achieves as high energy density as Li-ion capacitors with higher stability, higher safety and higher productivity. This is the new lithium-ion based hybrid capacitor using the lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12) negative intercalation electrode that can operate at unusually high current densities. The high-rate Li4Ti5O12 negative electrode has a unique nano-structure consisting of unusually small nano-crystalline Li4Ti5O12 nucleated and grafted onto carbon nano-fiber anchors (nc-Li4Ti5O12/CNF).