fs01.epsPS document505KSI Figure 1. Global urban, rural, and total population during the twentieth century in billions of people based on Klein Goldewijk et al. (2010).
fs02.epsPS document4310KSI Figure 2. Classification of the world in 10 world regions (and Greenland and Antarctica) as used for the model outputs at continental scale. Greenland and Antarctica were excluded from the results and discussion in the main text.
fs03.epsPS document713KSI Figure 3. Twentieth century protein consumption in g cap-1 d-1 for 11 world regions (SI Figure 2). Data from 1960 onward are based on FAO Food Balance Sheet statistics for most countries [FAO, 2012].
fs04.epsPS document8571KSI Figure 4. Regions used in the model for the calculation of population-weighed region-averages if data were absent. The classification is based on the regions used in the IMAGE model [Bouwman et al., 2006].
fs05.epsPS document509KSI Figure 5. Derivation of the 10:1 N:P ratio used in the model. A twentieth century protein consumption data set for the United States multiplied with 0.16 to obtain N consumption and 0.1 to obtain P consumption shows a good fit to actual P consumption [USDA, 2012].
fs06.epsPS document811KSI Figure 6. Twentieth century sewer connection as a fraction of the total population having a sewer for 11 world regions (SI Figure 2). Data from 1970 onward are taken from Van Drecht et al. (2009).
fs07.epsPS document1417KSI Figure 7. Twentieth century treatment coverage expressed as a fraction of people with a sewer connection having primary, secondary or tertiary treatment for 11 world regions (SI Figure 2). Data from 1970 onward are taken from Van Drecht et al. (2009). (a) Primary treatment (with 10% N (10%–25%) removal and 11% (10%–29%) P removal), (b) secondary treatment (with 35% N removal (35%–45%) and 45% (45%–50%) P removal), and (c) tertiary treatment (with 80% N removal (60%–80%) and 90% (90%–94%) P removal). Variations in nutrient removal percentages are caused by efficiencies of the respective countries to perform the level of treatment.
fs08.tifTIFF image651KSI Figure 8. World classification for 1900 in four levels of agricultural nutrient recycling. Low recycling (10%), medium recycling (40%), and high recycling (70%) are the classes of recycling of nonsewered human N and P in agriculture in 1900.
fs09.epsPS document838KSI Figure 9. Sum of the stocks of urban horses, donkeys, and mules in millions of animals for 11 world regions (SI Figure 2) based on formula (1) in article section 2.3.1. The shape of the lines is determined by the interaction of urbanization [Klein Goldewijk et al., 2010], the total equidae data set [FAO, 2008; Mitchell, 1993a; b; 1998], and factor F (section 2.3.1, equation (1)).
fs10.pdfPDF document328KSI Figure 10. Population-density based world distribution [Tobler et al., 1995] of surface water loading of N for the years (a) 1900, (b) 1950, and (c) 2000.
fs11.pdfPDF document151KSI Figure 11. Total mass flows from urban areas to agriculture for 10 world regions and globally in (a) Tg N yr-1 and (b) Tg P yr-1. Uncertainty ranges (5% and 9% percentiles) are included based on the methods described in section 2.5 and SI 10.
ts01.docxWord 2007 document26Kts01. List of all time-independent model parameters
ts02.docxWord 2007 document14Kts02. Food wasting and losses in retail and households for seven world regions as a percentage
ts03.docxWord 2007 document18Kts03. A table with for every model input parameter (46 parameters), the sensitivity ranges used to determine the model output sensitivity to each of these parameters
ts04.docxWord 2007 document23Kts04. A table with all SRC-values for surface water N and P discharge for the years 1900, 1950, and 2000
ts05.docxWord 2007 document22Kts05. A table with all SRC-values for agricultural recycling of N and P for the years 1900, 1950, and 2000
ts06.docxWord 2007 document17Kts06. Table with the uncertainty ranges defined for each of the sensitive input parameters as described in the main and SI texts
2013GB004587_Supporting_information_text.docxWord 2007 document70KSupporting Information
2013GB004587_Supporting_information_readme.docxWord 2007 document22KSupporting Information

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