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Global Biogeochemical Cycles

Cover image for Global Biogeochemical Cycles

December 2011

Volume 25, Issue 4

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      Integration of MODIS land and atmosphere products with a coupled-process model to estimate gross primary productivity and evapotranspiration from 1 km to global scales

      Youngryel Ryu, Dennis D. Baldocchi, Hideki Kobayashi, Catharine van Ingen, Jie Li, T. Andy Black, Jason Beringer, Eva van Gorsel, Alexander Knohl, Beverly E. Law and Olivier Roupsard

      Article first published online: 30 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GB004053

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      Key Points

      • A process model that couples atmosphere and canopy processes is reported
      • The model shows a good performance across a range of spatial and temporal scales
      • Mean annual global land GPP and ET are 118 PgC yr-1 and 63000 km3, respectively
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      Ammonia oxidation rates and nitrification in the Arabian Sea

      Silvia E. Newell, Andrew R. Babbin, Amal Jayakumar and Bess B. Ward

      Article first published online: 28 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010GB003940

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      Key Points

      • Ammonia oxidation rates above and below the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone
      • Ammonia-oxidizing archaeal and bacterial gene abundance
      • Depth-integrated nitrification rate
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      First direct measurements of N2 fixation during a Trichodesmium bloom in the eastern Arabian Sea

      Naveen Gandhi, Arvind Singh, S. Prakash, R. Ramesh, Mini Raman, M. S. Sheshshayee and Suhas Shetye

      Article first published online: 21 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010GB003970

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      Key Points

      • First N2 fixation measurements in the Arabian Sea
      • Better estimates of global marine nitrogen budget
      • First time 15N gas and 13C tracers are used simultaneously in the Arabian Sea
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      UK land-use change and its impact on SOC: 1925–2007

      M. J. Bell, F. Worrall, Pete Smith, Anne Bhogal, Helaina Black, Allan Lilly, Declan Barraclough and Graham Merrington

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010GB003881

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      Key Points

      • The impact of historical UK land-use on soil organic carbon was modeled
      • Simulations suggest that UK land-use change caused a gain in soil organic carbon
      • Carbon sequestration from land-use change could offset losses from climate change
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      Nitrogen enrichment and the emission of nitrous oxide from streams

      Helen M. Baulch, Sherry L. Schiff, Roxane Maranger and Peter J. Dillon

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GB004047

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      Key Points

      • Nitrate is a predictor of annual nitrous oxide emissions across 20 streams globally
      • Nitrous oxide consumption occurs below a threshold nitrate concentration
      • Nitrous oxide concentrations are related to nitrate concentrations under ice
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      Quantifying uncertainties in the global mass balance of mercury

      Asif Qureshi, Matthew MacLeod and Konrad Hungerbühler

      Article first published online: 13 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GB004068

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      Key Points

      • Uncertainties in the global mass balance of mercury are quantified
      • Processes that describe these global uncertainties are also identified
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      Changes in South Pacific anthropogenic carbon

      Jason F. Waters, Frank J. Millero and Christopher L. Sabine

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010GB003988

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      Key Points

      • Determine the decadal increases in anthropogenic carbon in the South Pacific
      • Determine the decrease in pH from increases in anthropogenic carbon
      • Determine the average rates of increases in anthropogenic carbon
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      The Nordic Seas carbon budget: Sources, sinks, and uncertainties

      Emil Jeansson, Are Olsen, Tor Eldevik, Ingunn Skjelvan, Abdirahman M. Omar, Siv K. Lauvset, Jan Even Ø. Nilsen, Richard G. J. Bellerby, Truls Johannessen and Eva Falck

      Article first published online: 9 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010GB003961

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      Key Points

      • Evaluating sinks and sources of carbon
      • Estimating air-sea flux of CO2
      • Advection totally dominates the Nordic Seas carbon transport
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      Nitrogen availability links forest productivity, soil nitrous oxide and nitric oxide fluxes of a tropical montane forest in southern Ecuador

      Katrin Wolf, Edzo Veldkamp, Juergen Homeier and Guntars O. Martinson

      Article first published online: 7 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010GB003876

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      Key Points

      • Close positive correlation of N-oxide fluxes with forest productivity
      • Better forest biomass estimates may improve N-oxide flux estimates
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      Nutrient streams in the North Atlantic: Advective pathways of inorganic and dissolved organic nutrients

      Richard G. Williams, Elaine McDonagh, Vassil M. Roussenov, Sinhue Torres-Valdes, Brian King, Richard Sanders and Dennis A. Hansell

      Article first published online: 30 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010GB003853

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      Key Points

      • The Gulf Stream provides advective nutrient fluxes
      • Downstream variations are affected by lateral exchange
      • Dissolved organic nutrients are transferred by the Gulf Stream
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      The supply of excess phosphate across the Gulf Stream and the maintenance of subtropical nitrogen fixation

      Jaime B. Palter, M. Susan Lozier, Jorge L. Sarmiento and Richard G. Williams

      Article first published online: 3 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010GB003955

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      Key Points

      • New observations show a net excess PO4 (P*) flux to the subtropical N. Atlantic
      • To maintain steady nutrient ratios, a P* sink is needed: biological N2 fixation
      • We infer high rates of biological N2 fixation in the western subtropical gyre
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      Oxygen isotope fractionation in the ocean surface and 18O/16O of atmospheric O2

      Boaz Luz and Eugeni Barkan

      Article first published online: 2 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GB004178

      Key Points

      • Dole effect estimates depend on accurate gross O2 production (G)
      • It was suggested that we had an error in our G estimates
      • Testing with an exact equation shows we were correct
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      Greenhouse gas dynamics in lakes receiving atmospheric nitrogen deposition

      Michelle L. McCrackin and James J. Elser

      Article first published online: 22 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010GB003897

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      Key Points

      • Atmospheric N deposition may increase nitrous oxide concentrations in lake water
      • Lakes may be an underappreciated component of global nitrous oxide cycling
      • Carbon dioxide is the dominant greenhouse gas in lakes regardless of N loading
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      Interbasin isotopic correspondence between upper-ocean bulk DON and subsurface nitrate and its implications for marine nitrogen cycling

      Angela N. Knapp, Daniel M. Sigman, Fred Lipschultz, Adam B. Kustka and Douglas G. Capone

      Article first published online: 18 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010GB003878

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      Key Points

      • DON d15N greater in N. Pac. than N. Atl., driven by basin subsurface nitrate d15N
      • High d15N of DON due to fractionation upon breakdown, explains low d15N of PON
      • DON d15N and [DON] uncorrelated to short term N2 fixation rate
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      Biogeochemical and physical controls on concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water and plankton of the Mediterranean and Black Seas

      Naiara Berrojalbiz, Jordi Dachs, María José Ojeda, María Carmen Valle, Javier Castro-Jiménez, Jan Wollgast, Michela Ghiani, Georg Hanke and José Manuel Zaldivar

      Article first published online: 14 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010GB003775

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      Key Points

      • PAHs were measured in samples of seawater and plankton of two east-west cruises
      • The results evidence biogeochemical controls on PAH cycling in oceanic regions
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      Redefinition and global estimation of basal ecosystem respiration rate

      Wenping Yuan, Yiqi Luo, Xianglan Li, Shuguang Liu, Guirui Yu, Tao Zhou, Michael Bahn, Andy Black, Ankur R. Desai, Alessandro Cescatti, Barbara Marcolla, Cor Jacobs, Jiquan Chen, Mika Aurela, Christian Bernhofer, Bert Gielen, Gil Bohrer, David R. Cook, Danilo Dragoni, Allison L. Dunn, Damiano Gianelle, Thomas Grünwald, Andreas Ibrom, Monique Y. Leclerc, Anders Lindroth, Heping Liu, Luca Belelli Marchesini, Leonardo Montagnani, Gabriel Pita, Mirco Rodeghiero, Abel Rodrigues, Gregory Starr and Paul C. Stoy

      Article first published online: 13 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GB004150

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      Key Points

      • Redefine basal ecosystem respiration rate of respiration model
      • Simulate global basal ecosystem respiration rate
      • Improve ecosystem respiration model performance
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      Surface ocean iron fertilization: The role of airborne volcanic ash from subduction zone and hot spot volcanoes and related iron fluxes into the Pacific Ocean

      Nazlı Olgun, Svend Duggen, Peter Leslie Croot, Pierre Delmelle, Heiner Dietze, Ulrike Schacht, Niels Óskarsson, Claus Siebe, Andreas Auer and Dieter Garbe-Schönberg

      Article first published online: 1 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2009GB003761

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      Key Points

      • Iron relase from volcanic ash can fertilize surface ocean
      • Fe inputs from volcanic ash and mineral dust are comparable
      • Volcanic ash is an important iron source into the Pacific Ocean

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