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Global Biogeochemical Cycles

Cover image for Global Biogeochemical Cycles

September 2012

Volume 26, Issue 3

    1. You have free access to this content
      Fixed nitrogen loss from the eastern tropical North Pacific and Arabian Sea oxygen deficient zones determined from measurements of N2:Ar

      Bonnie X. Chang, Allan H. Devol and Steven R. Emerson

      Article first published online: 25 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GB004207

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      Key Points

      • Estimate water column denitrification in oxygen deficient zones using N2:Ar
      • Compare nitrogen loss determined from N2:Ar to concurrent nitrate deficit
      • Nitrate deficit is a reasonable estimate of denitrification in regions examined
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      Simple transfer functions for calculating benthic fixed nitrogen losses and C:N:P regeneration ratios in global biogeochemical models

      Lisa Bohlen, Andrew W. Dale and Klaus Wallmann

      Article first published online: 25 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GB004198

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      Key Points

      • Empirical transfer functions are derived for predicting benthic denitrification
      • New estimate for global benthic denitrification rate: 153-155 Tg N yr-1
      • Benthic fluxes strongly deviate from Redfield C:N:P composition
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      Continuous rice cropping has been sequestering carbon in soils in Java and South Korea for the past 30 years

      Budiman Minasny, Alex B. McBratney, Suk Young Hong, Yiyi Sulaeman, Myung Sook Kim, Yong Seon Zhang, Yi Hyun Kim and Kyung Hwa Han

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GB004406

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      Key Points

      • Rice cultivation can result in increasing soil carbon sequestration
      • Management effect overrides climate change in the rice growing system
      • A close relationship between soil and food security
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      Biological productivity along Line P in the subarctic northeast Pacific: In situ versus incubation-based methods

      Karina E. Giesbrecht, Roberta C. Hamme and Steven R. Emerson

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GB004349

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      Key Points

      • Diapycnal mixing dominates oxygen mass balance as the mixed layer nears oxycline
      • In situ net community production was similar to or exceeded nitrate uptake
      • Net community production was about half of primary production in summer
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      On the capability of Monte Carlo and adjoint inversion techniques to derive posterior parameter uncertainties in terrestrial ecosystem models

      T. Ziehn, M. Scholze and W. Knorr

      Article first published online: 14 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GB004185

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      Key Points

      • Gaussian assumption for posterior parameters in CCDAS is valid
      • Adjoint methods can be used to derive posterior parameter PDFs in TEMs
      • Convergence of Metropolis algorithm is sensitive to step size
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      Atmospheric fluxes of organic N and P to the global ocean

      Maria Kanakidou, Robert A. Duce, Joseph M. Prospero, Alex R. Baker, Claudia Benitez-Nelson, Frank J. Dentener, Keith A. Hunter, Peter S. Liss, Natalie Mahowald, Gregory S. Okin, Manmohan Sarin, Kostas Tsigaridis, Mitsuo Uematsu, Lauren M. Zamora and Tong Zhu

      Article first published online: 14 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GB004277

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      Key Points

      • A significant fraction of N and P deposition occurs as ON and OP
      • ~45% of the atmospheric ON sources are associated with anthropogenic activities
      • ~10% of atmospheric OP is derived from human activities
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      Nanoscale lignin particles as sources of dissolved iron to the ocean

      Regina Krachler, Frank von der Kammer, Franz Jirsa, Altan Süphandag, Rudolf F. Krachler, Christof Plessl, Margret Vogt, Bernhard K. Keppler and Thilo Hofmann

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GB004294

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      Key Points

      • Natural iron-lignin nanoparticles show unexpected solubility in seawater
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      Global calcite cycling constrained by sediment preservation controls

      John P. Dunne, Burke Hales and J. R. Toggweiler

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2010GB003935

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      Key Points

      • Quantification of role of pore water kinetics on calcite burial
      • Provides a comprehesive framework for describing ocean calcite cycling
      • Provides consistency check on hypothesized glacial abyssal stratification
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      Nitrogen fixation and identification of potential diazotrophs in the Canadian Arctic

      Marjolaine Blais, Jean-Éric Tremblay, Anne D. Jungblut, Jonathan Gagnon, Johannie Martin, Mary Thaler and Connie Lovejoy

      Article first published online: 7 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GB004096

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      Key Points

      • Nitrogen fixation occurs in coastal Arctic waters
      • The Mackenzie River supplies an active diazotrophic community to Beaufort Sea
      • Sequences recovered from nifH gene survey belonged mainly to Cluster III
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      A meta-analysis of water vapor deuterium-excess in the midlatitude atmospheric surface layer

      Lisa R. Welp, Xuhui Lee, Timothy J. Griffis, Xue-Fa Wen, Wei Xiao, Shenggong Li, Xiaomin Sun, Zhongmin Hu, Maria Val Martin and Jianping Huang

      Article first published online: 1 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GB004246

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      Key Points

      • There is a diurnal cycle in d-excess with maxima during mid-day at all sites
      • D-excess is correlated with humidity and boundary layer height at some sites
      • Models show transpiration and entrainment contribute to the diurnal cycle
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      Correction to “Contribution of winter soil respiration to annual soil CO2 emission in a Mollisol under different tillage practices in northeast China”

      Xiuhuan Shi, Xiaoping Zhang, Xueming Yang, Craig F. Drury, Neil B. McLaughlin, Aizhen Liang, Ruqin Fan and Shuxia Jia

      Article first published online: 29 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GB004477

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      Climate-induced change in biogenic bromine emissions from the Antarctic marine biosphere

      Claire Hughes, Martin Johnson, Roland von Glasow, Rosie Chance, Helen Atkinson, Terri Souster, Gareth A. Lee, Andrew Clarke, Michael Meredith, Hugh J. Venables, Suzanne M. Turner, Gill Malin and Peter S. Liss

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GB004295

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      Key Points

      • Climate-induced changes to marine ecosystems alter bromocarbon emissions
      • Changes to marine ecosystems can alter atmospheric composition and chemistry
      • Individual trace gases respond differently to altered marine ecosystem structure
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      Recycling versus export of bioavailable dissolved organic matter in the coastal ocean and efficiency of the continental shelf pump

      Christian Lønborg and Xosé Antón Álvarez-Salgado

      Article first published online: 23 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GB004353

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      Key Points

      • DOM bioavailability decreased in the sequence DOP > DON > DOC
      • C: N: P stoichiometry of refractory DOM was extremely depleted in N and P
      • Coastal waters are exporting bioavailable DOM to the open ocean
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      The importance of the terrestrial weathering feedback for multimillennial coral reef habitat recovery

      Katrin J. Meissner, Ben I. McNeil, Michael Eby and Edward C. Wiebe

      Article first published online: 23 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GB004098

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      Key Points

      • The response in SST substantially lags the aragonite saturation recovery
      • Weathering parameterizations based on SAT versus CO2 show different responses
      • Weathering introduces significant uncertainties even for low emission scenarios
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      The ocean in near equilibrium with atmospheric methyl bromide

      Lei Hu, Shari Yvon-Lewis, Yina Liu and Thomas S. Bianchi

      Article first published online: 16 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GB004272

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      Key Points

      • The ocean may currently be near equilibrium with atmospheric CH3Br
      • The old SA-SST relationship for surface seawater CH3Br is no longer valid
      • Production rates and biological degree rate consistently remain constant
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      Climatic and geomorphic controls on the erosion of terrestrial biomass from subtropical mountain forest

      Robert G. Hilton, Albert Galy, Niels Hovius, Shuh-Ji Kao, Ming-Jame Horng and Hongey Chen

      Article first published online: 15 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GB004314

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      Key Points

      • Carbon export by mountain rivers is forced by climate
      • Erosion can limit time for aging soil organic matter to less than 10,000 years
      • Mountain rivers may contribute importantly to geological carbon sequestration
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      Characteristics and drivers of global NDVI-based FPAR from 1982 to 2006

      Dailiang Peng, Bing Zhang, Liangyun Liu, Hongliang Fang, Dongmei Chen, Yong Hu and Lingling Liu

      Article first published online: 15 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GB004060

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      Key Points

      • Interannual and spatial variation characteristics of a long-term global FPAR
      • Climatic influence on global FPAR
      • Land cover change (such as deforestation and afforestation) and FPAR variation
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      A global model for the uptake of atmospheric hydrogen by soils

      C. Morfopoulos, P. N. Foster, P. Friedlingstein, P. Bousquet and I. C. Prentice

      Article first published online: 15 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GB004248

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      Key Points

      • A simple process-based model for H2 soil uptake is described
      • The model reproduces observed seasonal cycles of H2 uptake at different sites
      • The model is unable to reproduce the trend found in an inversion-based study
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      Short-term and seasonal pH,pCO2and saturation state variability in a coral-reef ecosystem

      Sarah E. C. Gray, Michael D. DeGrandpre, Chris Langdon and Jorge E. Corredor

      Article first published online: 11 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GB004114

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      Key Points

      • Aragonite saturation states vary over a large range
      • Reef inorganic carbon is controlled by local and open ocean processes
      • CaCO3 saturation approaches 3.0 when atmospheric CO2 is 500 uatm
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      Organic carbon burial rates in mangrove sediments: Strengthening the global budget

      Joshua L. Breithaupt, Joseph M. Smoak, Thomas J. Smith III, Christian J. Sanders and Armando Hoare

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GB004375

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      Key Points

      • Global mangrove sediments accumulate 26.1 Tg of organic carbon annually
      • This burial equates to twelve percent of annual mangrove primary production
      • The 95 percent confidence interval is from 131 to 203 g OC per square meter per year
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      Relationships between net primary productivity and forest stand age in U.S. forests

      Liming He, Jing M. Chen, Yude Pan, Richard Birdsey and Jens Kattge

      Article first published online: 3 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2010GB003942

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      Key Points

      • Eighteen NPP-age relationships derived for U.S. forests
      • Combination of FIA data, remote sensing, and plant trait information
      • Useful for analysis of management and climate effects on the forest carbon cycle
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      Quantification of sediment-water interactions in a polluted tropical river through biogeochemical modeling

      Anh Duc Trinh, Filip Meysman, Emma Rochelle-Newall and Marie Paule Bonnet

      Article first published online: 3 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2010GB003963

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      Key Points

      • For the first time, diagenetic modeling is applied to a river subbasin in Vietnam
      • New approach for calculation of mass balance
      • Future scenario is calculated thanks to diagenetic modeling
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      Global nutrient limitation in terrestrial vegetation

      Joshua B. Fisher, Grayson Badgley and Eleanor Blyth

      Article first published online: 3 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GB004252

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      Key Points

      • Most vegetation is nutrient limited, but the magnitude globally is not known
      • We produce a map of global terrestrial nutrient limitation using remote sensing
      • Global average reduction in terrestrial plant productivity was within 16-28%
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      Biological and physical forcing of carbonate chemistry in an upwelling filament off northwest Africa: Results from a Lagrangian study

      Socratis Loucaides, Toby Tyrrell, Eric P. Achterberg, Ricardo Torres, Philip D. Nightingale, Vassilis Kitidis, Pablo Serret, Malcolm Woodward and Carol Robinson

      Article first published online: 3 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GB004216

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      Key Points

      • We quantify accurately the effects of upwelling on pH and CaCO3 saturation
      • Organic alkalinity generation is unimportant in the open ocean
      • DIC:AOU is lower than in some papers and in agreement with others
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      CO2 semiannual oscillation in the middle troposphere and at the surface

      Xun Jiang, Moustafa T. Chahine, Qinbin Li, Maochang Liang, Edward T. Olsen, Luke L. Chen, Jingqian Wang and Yuk L. Yung

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GB004118

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      Key Points

      • Semiannual oscillation (SAO) was found in the midtropospheric and surface CO2
      • The SAO signal in the midtropospheric CO2 mainly originates from surface CO2
      • The SAO signal in the surface CO2 is mostly related to the biosphere
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      Strong spatial variability in trace gasdynamics following experimental drought in a humid tropical forest

      Tana E. Wood and Whendee L. Silver

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2010GB004014

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      Key Points

      • Drought reduced trace gas emissions and phosphorus availability
      • Response to drought varied across three topographic zones
      • Spatial heterogeneity is important for future studies
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      Fluxes and distribution of dissolved iron in the eastern (sub-) tropical North Atlantic Ocean

      Micha J. A. Rijkenberg, Sebastian Steigenberger, Claire F. Powell, Hans van Haren, Matthew D. Patey, Alex R. Baker and Eric P. Achterberg

      Article first published online: 21 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GB004264

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      Key Points

      • Fluxes and distribution of dissolved Fe in eastern North Atlantic
      • Lateral and vertical Fe fluxes do/can surpass Aeolian Fe flux
      • Dust is a source of Fe to the surface ocean
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      Grain-size properties and organic-carbon stock of Yedoma Ice Complex permafrost from the Kolyma lowland, northeastern Siberia

      Jens Strauss, Lutz Schirrmeister, Sebastian Wetterich, Andreas Borchers and Sergei P. Davydov

      Article first published online: 18 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GB004104

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      Key Points

      • Ice complex at Duvanny Yar is of polygenetic origin
      • Floodplain and aeolian deposition were the controlling processes
      • Ice complex deposits contain a significant carbon inventory (14 +/-8 kg C/m^3)
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      The effect of vertical and horizontal dilution on fertilized patch experiments

      Debby Ianson, Christoph Völker, Ken L. Denman, Eric Kunze and Nadja Steiner

      Article first published online: 11 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2010GB004008

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      Key Points

      • Efficiency of carbon export decreases for increased size of fertilized patch
      • Lateral supply of silicic acid is critical to blooms in iron-fertilized patches
      • Carbon export resulting from iron fertilization is minimal
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      Decadal changes in the aragonite and calcite saturation state of the Pacific Ocean

      Richard A. Feely, Christopher L. Sabine, Robert H. Byrne, Frank J. Millero, Andrew G. Dickson, Rik Wanninkhof, Akihiko Murata, Lisa A. Miller and Dana Greeley

      Article first published online: 4 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GB004157

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      Key Points

      • The saturation state of surface waters decreased by an average of 0.34% per year
      • The aragonite and calcite saturation horizons shoal an average of 1-2 m per yr
      • The shoaling of the saturation horizon is regionally variable

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