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Global Biogeochemical Cycles

Cover image for Global Biogeochemical Cycles

December 2012

Volume 26, Issue 4

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      Global net community production and the putative net heterotrophy of the oligotrophic oceans

      Toby K. Westberry, Peter J. le B. Williams and Michael J. Behrenfeld

      Article first published online: 22 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GB004094

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      Key Points

      • We employ satellite ocean color data to estimate global net community production
      • We estimate rates consistent with global models of export production
      • Previously reported heterotrophy in the ocean is due to methodological biases
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      A land-to-ocean perspective on the magnitude, source and implication of DIC flux from major Arctic rivers to the Arctic Ocean

      Suzanne E. Tank, Peter A. Raymond, Robert G. Striegl, James W. McClelland, Robert M. Holmes, Greg J. Fiske and Bruce J. Peterson

      Article first published online: 14 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GB004192

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      Key Points

      • DIC flux from major Arctic rivers shows large seasonal and regional variation
      • Runoff and catchment carbonates, permafrost, and glaciers control DIC flux
      • Riverwater effects on coastal aragonite saturation appear greatest in spring
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      Holocene linkages between char, soot, biomass burning and climate from Lake Daihai, China

      Y. M. Han, J. R. Marlon, J. J. Cao, Z. D. Jin and Z. S. An

      Article first published online: 13 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GB004197

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      Key Points

      • Sedimentary elemental carbon reflects regional biomass burning
      • Holocene biomass burning in China varies with moisture and temperature
      • Char levels in eastern Asia today are higher than at any time in the Holocene
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      Direct measurements of atmospheric iron, cobalt, and aluminum-derived dust deposition at Kerguelen Islands

      A. Heimburger, R. Losno, S. Triquet, F. Dulac and N. Mahowald

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GB004301

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      Key Points

      • Revaluation of atmospheric dust deposition flux in the Southern Ocean
      • Discussion on scavenging ratio in remote oceanic area
      • Ultra clean procedures for trace metal determinations and duplicate sampling
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      Thermal growing season and timing of biospheric carbon uptake across the Northern Hemisphere

      J. Barichivich, K. R. Briffa, T. J. Osborn, T. M. Melvin and J. Caesar

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GB004312

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      Key Points

      • The decade of the 2000s recorded the longest thermal growing seasons since 1950
      • The extension has been symmetrical since 2005 due to strong autumn warming
      • Thermal growing season length is not correlated with biospheric uptake period
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      Relationships between Δ14C and the molecular quality of dissolved organic carbon in rivers draining to the coast from the conterminous United States

      David Butman, Peter A. Raymond, Kenna Butler and George Aiken

      Article first published online: 29 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GB004361

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      Key Points

      • There is significant variation in the 14C-DOC exported to US coasts
      • The 14C-DOC in large rivers correlates significantly with DOC aromaticity
      • Both humans and climate influence the 14C-DOC in large rivers
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      A probabilistic estimate of global marine N-fixation and denitrification

      Olivier Eugster and Nicolas Gruber

      Article first published online: 28 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GB004300

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      Key Points

      • Probabilistic estimate of N-fixation and denitrification
      • The pre-industrial marine N cycle is balanced or close to balance
      • Magnitudes of denitrification are at the lower end compared to recent studies
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      Quantitative geochemical modeling along a transect off Peru: Carbon cycling in time and space, and the triggering factors for carbon loss and storage

      Esther T. Arning, Wolfgang van Berk and Hans-Martin Schulz

      Article first published online: 17 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GB004156

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      Key Points

      • Modeling present-day and Miocene carbon cycle
      • Predict methane formation and storage
      • Palaeoceanographic conclusions
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      Dissolved organic matter composition of winter flow in the Yukon River basin: Implications of permafrost thaw and increased groundwater discharge

      Jonathan A. O'Donnell, George R. Aiken, Michelle A. Walvoord and Kenna D. Butler

      Article first published online: 17 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GB004341

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      Key Points

      • DOM composition of winter flow is spatially variable
      • The variation in DOM reflects differences in permafrost hydrology
      • Future thaw and increases in groundwater discharge will alter DOM character
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      Carbon dioxide and methane emissions from the Yukon River system

      Robert G. Striegl, M. M. Dornblaser, C. P. McDonald, J. R. Rover and E. G. Stets

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GB004306

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      Key Points

      • Carbon gas emissions from a boreal river system
      • Circumboreal comparison of CO2 and CH4 emission from rivers
      • Quantify river surface area extent in a boreal river basin
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      Assessment of the spatial variability in particulate organic matter and mineral sinking fluxes in the ocean interior: Implications for the ballast hypothesis

      J. D. Wilson, S. Barker and A. Ridgwell

      Article first published online: 2 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GB004398

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      Key Points

      • The global regression of sinking fluxes hides significant spatial variability
      • There is no consistent ballasting relationship between POC and calcium carbonate
      • Spatial patterns in particle fluxes resemble surface ecosystem characteristics
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      High-resolution estimates of net community production and air-sea CO2 flux in the northeast Pacific

      Deirdre Lockwood, Paul D. Quay, Maria T. Kavanaugh, Lauren W. Juranek and Richard A. Feely

      Article first published online: 30 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GB004380

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      Key Points

      • We estimated NE Pacific net community production (NCP) with O2/Ar gas tracers
      • NCP was correlated with air-sea CO2 uptake in subarctic and transition zone
      • NCP in subarctic and northern transition zone was 2x-3x subtropical rates
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      Contributions of natural and anthropogenic sources to atmospheric methane variations over western Siberia estimated from its carbon and hydrogen isotopes

      Taku Umezawa, Toshinobu Machida, Shuji Aoki and Takakiyo Nakazawa

      Article first published online: 27 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GB004232

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      Key Points

      • Wetlands as a predominant methane source in summer
      • Fossil fuel facilities as a predominant methane source in winter
      • Fossil methane affects the shorter-term methane variations
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      Analysis of seasonality and annual mean distribution of atmospheric potential oxygen (APO) in the Pacific region

      Yasunori Tohjima, Chika Minejima, Hitoshi Mukai, Toshinobu Machida, Hiroaki Yamagishi and Yukihiro Nojiri

      Article first published online: 26 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GB004110

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      Key Points

      • Highly precise distribution of APO in the Western Pacific was investigated
      • Air-sea CO2 and O2 exchange fluxes in the Pacific region were examined
      • Contributions of atmospheric transport to APO variations were examined
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      Predictability of biomass burning in response to climate changes

      A.-L. Daniau, P. J. Bartlein, S. P. Harrison, I. C. Prentice, S. Brewer, P. Friedlingstein, T. I. Harrison-Prentice, J. Inoue, K. Izumi, J. R. Marlon, S. Mooney, M. J. Power, J. Stevenson, W. Tinner, M. Andrič, J. Atanassova, H. Behling, M. Black, O. Blarquez, K. J. Brown, C. Carcaillet, E. A. Colhoun, D. Colombaroli, B. A. S. Davis, D. D'Costa, J. Dodson, L. Dupont, Z. Eshetu, D. G. Gavin, A. Genries, S. Haberle, D. J. Hallett, G. Hope, S. P. Horn, T. G. Kassa, F. Katamura, L. M. Kennedy, P. Kershaw, S. Krivonogov, C. Long, D. Magri, E. Marinova, G. M. McKenzie, P. I. Moreno, P. Moss, F. H. Neumann, E. Norström, C. Paitre, D. Rius, N. Roberts, G. S. Robinson, N. Sasaki, L. Scott, H. Takahara, V. Terwilliger, F. Thevenon, R. Turner, V. G. Valsecchi, B. Vannière, M. Walsh, N. Williams and Y. Zhang

      Article first published online: 23 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GB004249

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      Key Points

      • Sedimentary charcoal records were analyzed over the past 21 kyr
      • Changes in fire regime are predictable from changes in regional climates
      • Temperature is the most important driver of fire over the last 21 kyr
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      Long-term C accumulation and total C stocks in boreal lakes in northern Québec

      Marie-Eve Ferland, Paul A. del Giorgio, Cristian R. Teodoru and Yves T. Prairie

      Article first published online: 23 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GB004241

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      Key Points

      • Lakes of Eastmain region store on average 3.8 g C m-2 yr-1
      • Scaling of C accumulation is based on lake morphometry
      • Our lakes stores 23 kg C m-2 (per lake area) and equals 25% of landscape C storage
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      Riverine N2O concentrations, exports to estuary and emissions to atmosphere from the Changjiang River in response to increasing nitrogen loads

      Weijin Yan, Libiao Yang, Fang Wang, Jianing Wang and Pei Ma

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2010GB003984

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      Key Points

      • N2O emissions to atmosphere increased from 330 to 3650 ton N-N2O yr-1
      • N2O exports to estuary increased from 91 to 470 ton N-N2O yr-1
      • The net N2 is correlated to N2O production, suggestive of denitrification
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      Assessing offsets between the δ13C of sedimentary components and the global exogenic carbon pool across early Paleogene carbon cycle perturbations

      Appy Sluijs and Gerald R. Dickens

      Article first published online: 18 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GB004224

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      Key Points

      • The d13C changes in sediment records are described in three simple equations
      • Increasing marine organic matter contribution during the PETM enhances the CIE
      • No d13C record precisely records the evolution of global exogenic d13C
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      Organic carbon dynamics in the Mediterranean Sea: An integrated study

      Chiara Santinelli, Richard Sempéré, France Van Wambeke, Bruno Charriere and Alfredo Seritti

      Article first published online: 18 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GB004151

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      Key Points

      • High flux of C into the microbial loop in the western Mediterranean Sea
      • DOC accumulation in the surface layer of the eastern Mediterranean Sea
      • High BCD vs. PP ratio (>100%)
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      Phenological changes of oceanic phytoplankton in the 1980s and 2000s as revealed by remotely sensed ocean-color observations

      Fabrizio D'Ortenzio, David Antoine, Elodie Martinez and Maurizio Ribera d'Alcalà

      Article first published online: 12 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GB004269

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      Key Points

      • Organization of phytoplankton phenological regimes from the 1980s to the 2000s
      • Identification of main phenological patterns at global scale
      • Preliminary connections between phenology and climate indices
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      Is the C:N:P stoichiometry in soil and soil microbial biomass related to the landscape and land use in southern subtropical China?

      Yong Li, Jinshui Wu, Shoulong Liu, Jianlin Shen, Daoyou Huang, Yirong Su, Wenxue Wei and J. Keith Syers

      Article first published online: 10 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GB004399

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      Key Points

      • Atomic C:N:P ratios in both soil and SMB were well constrained
      • A significant correlation between the C:P ratios in soil and SMB was obtained
      • Weak homeostasis of elemental stoichiometry in SMB may exist in southern China
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      Role of diatoms in nickel biogeochemistry in the ocean

      Benjamin S. Twining, Stephen B. Baines, Stefan Vogt and David M. Nelson

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GB004233

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      Key Points

      • Ocean diatoms contain more nickel than other types of phytoplankton
      • Half of the nickel in diatoms is associated with the silica shell
      • Vertical distributions of nickel in the ocean are largely controlled by diatoms
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      Biodegradability of dissolved organic carbon in the Yukon River and its tributaries: Seasonality and importance of inorganic nitrogen

      K. P. Wickland, G. R. Aiken, K. Butler, M. M. Dornblaser, R. G. M. Spencer and R. G. Striegl

      Article first published online: 26 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GB004342

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      Key Points

      • Biodegradable DOC is transported by high-latitude rivers year-round
      • Biodegradable DOC is driven by inorganic nitrogen availability
      • Major arctic rivers export approximately 2.3 Tg C yr-1 as Biodegradable DOC
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      Landscape-level controls on dissolved carbon flux from diverse catchments of the circumboreal

      Suzanne E. Tank, Karen E. Frey, Robert G. Striegl, Peter A. Raymond, Robert M. Holmes, James W. McClelland and Bruce J. Peterson

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GB004299

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      Key Points

      • Controls on bicarbonate flux from boreal catchments are near universal
      • River HCO3, and CO2 fixed via weathering, decrease with increasing permafrost
      • Permafrost has a region-specific effect on DOC flux from boreal catchments

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