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Global Biogeochemical Cycles

Cover image for Vol. 27 Issue 2

June 2013

Volume 27, Issue 2

Pages 265–604

  1. Regular Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
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    2. You have free access to this content
      Inorganic carbon loading as a primary driver of dissolved carbon dioxide concentrations in the lakes and reservoirs of the contiguous United States (pages 285–295)

      Cory P. McDonald, Edward G. Stets, Robert G. Striegl and David Butman

      Article first published online: 3 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20032

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      Key Points

      • CO2 emission from the lakes in the contiguous United States is estimated
      • Dissolved organic carbon concentrations are generally not correlated with CO2
      • Inorganic carbon loading widely supports lacustrine CO2 concentrations
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      Atmospheric Δ14C reduction in simulations of Atlantic overturning circulation shutdown (pages 296–304)

      Katsumi Matsumoto and Yusuke Yokoyama

      Article first published online: 3 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20035

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      Key Points

      • Prevailing view holds that MOC shutdown causes atmospheric C-14 to rise
      • The bipolar seesaw allows atmospheric C-14 to decline while MOC is shutdown
      • Change in surface ocean reservoir age can explain marine-based C-14 data
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      Response of methanogenic archaea to Late Pleistocene and Holocene climate changes in the Siberian Arctic (pages 305–317)

      Juliane Bischoff, Kai Mangelsdorf, Andreas Gattinger, Michael Schloter, Anna N. Kurchatova, Ulrike Herzschuh and Dirk Wagner

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GB004238

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      Key Points

      • Spatial distribution of methane in arctic Holocene and Late Pleistocene deposits
      • Pronounced methanogenic communities during reconstructed past warming events
      • Living methanogenic archaea in deep layers of permafrost
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      Analysis of trends in fused AVHRR and MODIS NDVI data for 1982–2006: Indication for a CO2 fertilization effect in global vegetation (pages 318–330)

      S. O. Los

      Article first published online: 10 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20027

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      Key Points

      • It is the first realistic simulation of monthly NDVI for the 20th century
      • It is the first evidence of CO2 fertilization derived from satellite data
      • The model can be used to fuse AVHRR and MODIS data
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      Amounts, isotopic character, and ages of organic and inorganic carbon exported from rivers to ocean margins: 1. Estimates of terrestrial losses and inputs to the Middle Atlantic Bight (pages 331–346)

      Katie Hossler and James E. Bauer

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20033

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      Key Points

      • 1 % of terrestrial NPP removed by fluvial transport annually
      • Net annual fluvial C inputs to the MAB shelf are ∼ 350 Gg OC and 800 Gg IC
      • Of the total riverine C flux, ∼ 50 % is terrestrial and < 25 % is aged
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      Amounts, isotopic character, and ages of organic and inorganic carbon exported from rivers to ocean margins: 2. Assessment of natural and anthropogenic controls (pages 347–362)

      Katie Hossler and James E. Bauer

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20034

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      Key Points

      • Hydrogeomorphology is a primary control of terrestrial and total river C export
      • Anthropogenic use of fossil C has increased aged and total C export in rivers
      • Nuclear power plant presence may bias aquatic studies with natural abundance 14C
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      Carbon evasion/accumulation ratio in boreal lakes is linked to nitrogen (pages 363–374)

      Pirkko Kortelainen, Miitta Rantakari, Hannu Pajunen, Jari T. Huttunen, Tuija Mattsson, Sari Juutinen, Tuula Larmola, Jukka Alm, Jouko Silvola and Pertti J. Martikainen

      Article first published online: 30 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20036

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      Key Points

      • Role of lakes in long term C balance is linked to N
      • Climate/deposition were more important drivers for water chemistry than land use
      • Variability of TOC was minor, TIC variability reflected CO2 accumulation
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      Phosphorus cycling in the Sargasso Sea: Investigation using the oxygen isotopic composition of phosphate, enzyme-labeled fluorescence, and turnover times (pages 375–387)

      Karen McLaughlin, Jill A. Sohm, Gregory A. Cutter, Michael W. Lomas and Adina Paytan

      Article first published online: 30 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20037

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      Key Points

      • DOP pool may play a critical role in supporting photosynthesis
      • Remineralization of DOP in surface waters is extensive
      • Oxygen isotopes in phosphate can be used to determine DOP utilization
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      Annual cycle of air-sea CO2 exchange in an Arctic Polynya Region (pages 388–398)

      B. G. T. Else, T. N. Papakyriakou, M. G. Asplin, D. G. Barber, R. J. Galley, L. A. Miller and A. Mucci

      Article first published online: 9 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20016

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      Key Points

      • The Cape Bathurst polynya region is a strong atmospheric CO2 sink
      • The magnitude of the sink is influenced by variable ice and wind conditions
      • CO2 uptake by polynyas at the circumpolar scale may be significant
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      The contribution of Fe(III) and humic acid reduction to ecosystem respiration in drained thaw lake basins of the Arctic Coastal Plain (pages 399–409)

      David A. Lipson, Theodore K. Raab, Dominic Goria and Jaime Zlamal

      Article first published online: 9 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20038

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      Key Points

      • Fe reduction contributes greatly to soil respiration in the Arctic coastal plain
      • Soil Fe availability declines with increased organic layer thickness
      • Humic acids can re-oxidize Fe(III) and could represent a large e- acceptor pool
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      Legacy impacts of all-time anthropogenic emissions on the global mercury cycle (pages 410–421)

      Helen M. Amos, Daniel J. Jacob, David G. Streets and Elsie M. Sunderland

      Article first published online: 9 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20040

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      Key Points

      • More than 50% of Hg in the ocean today is anthropogenic.
      • Anthropogenic enrichment is much greater than previously recognized.
      • Aggressive emission reductions are needed to stabilize ocean Hg concentrations.
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      210Pb and 137Cs in margin sediments of the Arctic Ocean: Controls on boundary scavenging (pages 422–439)

      Zou Zou A. Kuzyk, Charles Gobeil and Robie W. Macdonald

      Article first published online: 15 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20041

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      Key Points

      • 210Pb and 137Cs analyzed in sediment cores from North Bering Sea to Davis Strait
      • Efficient scavenging of 210Pb all along margin relative to interior Arctic Ocean
      • Strong boundary scavenging in north Chukchi slope and Baffin Bay/Davis Strait
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      Atmospheric deposition fluxes of 26 elements over the Southern Indian Ocean: Time series on Kerguelen and Crozet Islands (pages 440–449)

      Alexie Heimburger, Rémi Losno, Sylvain Triquet and Elisabeth Bon Nguyen

      Article first published online: 17 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20043

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      Key Points

      • Atmospheric deposition fluxes of numerous trace metals over the Southern Ocean
      • Anthropogenic signal tracked over the Southern Ocean
      • Uncertainties calculation of atmospheric deposition flux
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      Humic substances may control dissolved iron distributions in the global ocean: Implications from numerical simulations (pages 450–462)

      Kazuhiro Misumi, Keith Lindsay, J. Keith Moore, Scott C. Doney, Daisuke Tsumune and Yoshikatsu Yoshida

      Article first published online: 20 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20039

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      Key Points

      • Humic substances may dominate iron-binding ligand in deep-ocean waters
      • Apparent oxygen utilization is used for a proxy for humic substances
      • Using spatially variable ligand concentrations improves iron cycle model
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      Winners and losers: Ecological and biogeochemical changes in a warming ocean (pages 463–477)

      S. Dutkiewicz, J. R. Scott and M. J. Follows

      Article first published online: 20 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20042

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      Key Points

      • Productivity changes are balance of direct and indirect effects of warming
      • Phytoplankton type range shifts lead to global and regional winners and losers
      • Clearest signal of climate change will be shifts in community at specieslevel
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      Diel vertical migration: Ecological controls and impacts on the biological pump in a one-dimensional ocean model (pages 478–491)

      Daniele Bianchi, Charles Stock, Eric D. Galbraith and Jorge L. Sarmiento

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20031

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      Key Points

      • We develop a model of diel vertical migration in the ocean
      • We use the model to quantify the impact of DVM on the biological pump
      • We explore the sensitivity of DVM impacts to the model formulation
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      Controls on dissolved organic carbon quantity and chemical character in temperate rivers of North America (pages 492–504)

      Kevin W. Hanley, Wilfred M. Wollheim, Joseph Salisbury, Thomas Huntington and George Aiken

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20044

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      Key Points

      • Similar controls appear to drive DOC variability in large and small systems
      • Wetlands control DOC quality and quantity in large North American rivers
      • DOC quality is crucial to understanding the implications of bulk DOC dynamics.
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      Evidence for changes in carbon isotopic fractionation by phytoplankton between 1960 and 2010 (pages 505–515)

      J. N. Young, J. Bruggeman, R. E. M. Rickaby, J. Erez and M. Conte

      Article first published online: 7 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20045

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      Key Points

      • Carbon isotopic fractionation in phytoplankton has increased over the past 50 yr
      • This change has occurred in surface oceans at low and mid latitudes
      • This suggests phytoplankton have already responded to increased atmospheric CO2
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      A leaky model of long-term soil phosphorus dynamics (pages 516–525)

      John F. Boyle, Richard C. Chiverrell, Stephen A. Norton and Andy J. Plater

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20054

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      Key Points

      • Soils leak phosphorus more rapidly than recent global models suggest
      • Atmospheric phosphorus flux to soil is more important than currently believed
      • Runoff was strongly phosphorus enriched during the early Holocene
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      Annual cycles of ecological disturbance and recovery underlying the subarctic Atlantic spring plankton bloom (pages 526–540)

      Michael J. Behrenfeld, Scott C. Doney, Ivan Lima, Emmanuel S. Boss and David A. Siegel

      Article first published online: 20 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20050

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      Key Points

      • plankton blooms reflect ecosystem disturbance-recovery cycles
      • ecosystem models capture fundamental aspects of seasonal blooms
      • subarctic Atlantic bloom biomass may decrease with climate warming
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      Global trends in surface ocean pCO2 from in situ data (pages 541–557)

      A. R. Fay and G. A. McKinley

      Article first published online: 20 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20051

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      Key Points

      • pCO2s.ocean trends are sensitive to chosen start and end years
      • subtropical warming is contributing to the observed increase in oceanic pCO2
      • long-term pCO2s.ocean trends tend toward parallel with atmospheric trends
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      Patterns and trends in nitrogen use and nitrogen recovery efficiency in world agriculture (pages 558–566)

      Richard T. Conant, Aaron B. Berdanier and Peter R. Grace

      Article first published online: 21 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20053

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      Key Points

      • Efficiency of nitrogen use is greater for rich countries than for developing
      • Efficiency of nitrogen use has exhibited little change over time
      • Sustainable growth in food production requires advancement in many technologies
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      Processes affecting greenhouse gas production in experimental boreal reservoirs (pages 567–577)

      Jason J. Venkiteswaran, Sherry L. Schiff, Vincent L. St. Louis, Cory J. D. Matthews, Natalie M. Boudreau, Elizabeth M. Joyce, Kenneth G. Beaty and R. Andrew Bodaly

      Article first published online: 27 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20046

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      Key Points

      • GHG fluxes were strongly affected by primary production and CH4 oxidation
      • Decomposition and GHG fluxes not directly related to amount of flooded organic C
      • Isotopes were required to calculate rates of biogeochem GHG processes
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      History of nutrient inputs to the northeastern United States, 1930–2000 (pages 578–591)

      Rebecca L. Hale, Joseph H. Hoover, Wilfred M. Wollheim and Charles J. Vörösmarty

      Article first published online: 27 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20049

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      Key Points

      • Spatiotemporal patterns of nutrient inputs were dynamic and unique for N and P.
      • Livestock consume the majority of nutrient inputs to the NE.
      • Human population density best predictor of nutrient inputs.
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      Estimating wetland methane emissions from the northern high latitudes from 1990 to 2009 using artificial neural networks (pages 592–604)

      Xudong Zhu, Qianlai Zhuang, Zhangcai Qin, Mikhail Glagolev and Lulu Song

      Article first published online: 28 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20052

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      Key Points

      • Develop wetland CH4 emissions model using artificial neural networks
      • Estimate wetland CH4 emissions from the northern high latitudes
      • The wetland CH4 emissions are most sensitive to variations in water table depth

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