Global Biogeochemical Cycles

Cover image for Vol. 27 Issue 3

September 2013

Volume 27, Issue 3

Pages 605–989

  1. Regular Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
    1. Future Arctic Ocean primary productivity from CMIP5 simulations: Uncertain outcome, but consistent mechanisms (pages 605–619)

      Martin Vancoppenolle, Laurent Bopp, Gurvan Madec, John Dunne, Tatiana Ilyina, Paul R. Halloran and Nadja Steiner

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20055

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • CMIP5 models do not agree on the sign of future PP change
      • Models agree on sea ice and nitrate decreases over the 21st century
      • Uncertainty in future Arctic PP is due to the inter-model spread in nitrate
    2. Diel patterns of oceanic dimethylsulfide (DMS) cycling: Microbial and physical drivers (pages 620–636)

      Martí Galí, Rafel Simó, Maria Vila-Costa, Clara Ruiz-González, Josep M. Gasol and Patricia Matrai

      Article first published online: 2 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20047

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Biological DMS and DMSP cycling processes show pronounced diel variability
      • Sunlight drives DMSP to DMS conversion yields during summer stratification
      • Diel variability should be taken into account in oceanic DMS cycling budgets
    3. Biosphere model simulations of interannual variability in terrestrial 13C/12C exchange (pages 637–649)

      I. R. van der Velde, J. B. Miller, K. Schaefer, K. A. Masarie, S. Denning, J. W. C. White, P. P. Tans, M. C. Krol and W. Peters

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20048

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Bottom-up estimates of disequilibrium flux variability is low
      • We quantified 3 drivers of variability in the terrestrial disequilibrium flux
      • Different terms in the 13C mass balance can provide leverage to close the budget
    4. Response of global soil consumption of atmospheric methane to changes in atmospheric climate and nitrogen deposition (pages 650–663)

      Qianlai Zhuang, Min Chen, Kai Xu, Jinyun Tang, Eri Saikawa, Yanyu Lu, Jerry M. Melillo, Ronald G. Prinn and A. David McGuire

      Article first published online: 9 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20057

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Land use plays a minor role in global soil CH4 uptake
      • N deposition had a moderate effect on soil CH4 uptake
      • Soil CH4 uptake significantly affects atmospheric CH4 mole fraction
    5. The influence of net community production and phytoplankton community structure on CO2 uptake in the Gulf of Alaska (pages 664–676)

      Hilary I. Palevsky, Francois Ribalet, Jarred E. Swalwell, Catherine E. Cosca, Edward D. Cokelet, Richard A. Feely, E. Virginia Armbrust and Paul D. Quay

      Article first published online: 9 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20058

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • A hotspot of high phytoplankton abundance, NCP, and CO2 uptake was identified
      • Distinct phytoplankton communities may drive carbon uptake at this hotspot
      • High spatial-resolution measurements were made in the Gulf of Alaska
    6. Fire at high latitudes: Data-model comparisons and their consequences (pages 677–691)

      Euripides Kantzas, Mark Lomas and Shaun Quegan

      Article first published online: 9 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20059

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Spatiotemporal variability of fires are very poorly represented in the models
      • Net biome production is poorly correlated with fire emissions
      • Data gaps cause large uncertainties in model estimates of fire emissions
    7. On the potential role of marine calcifiers in glacial-interglacial dynamics (pages 692–704)

      Anne Willem Omta, George A. K. van Voorn, Rosalind E. M. Rickaby and Michael J. Follows

      Article first published online: 9 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20060

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Ecological model generates sawtooth cycle in CO2
      • System can transform sinusoidal Milankovitch forcing into sawtooth-shaped output
      • Model predicts calcite spikes at glacial transitions
    8. Localized refractory dissolved organic carbon sinks in the deep ocean (pages 705–710)

      Dennis A. Hansell and Craig A. Carlson

      Article first published online: 12 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20067

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Refractory DOC conserved over great distances in the deep Pacific Ocean
      • Nonconservative behavior when mixed into localized deep ocean systems
      • Deep DOC gradients due to mixing between the conserved and nonconserved systems
    9. Soil organic carbon sequestration potential of cropland in China (pages 711–722)

      Zhangcai Qin, Yao Huang and Qianlai Zhuang

      Article first published online: 12 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20068

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Models were developed to estimate SOC sequestration potential in cropland
      • Models were used to estimate SOC potential of croplands in China
      • Chinese croplands have great potential for soil C sequestration
    10. Regional variation in the particulate organic carbon to nitrogen ratio in the surface ocean (pages 723–731)

      A. C. Martiny, Jasper A. Vrugt, Francois W. Primeau and Michael W. Lomas

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20061

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • The median upper ocean particulate C:N ratio is broadly constrained at 6.5
      • The C:N ratio is 7.1 in low compared to 6.2 in high nutrient regions
      • The C:N ratios in picophytoplankton are greater than global mean
    11. A joint atmosphere-ocean inversion for the estimation of seasonal carbon sources and sinks (pages 732–745)

      K. Steinkamp and N. Gruber

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20064

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Each data constraint has a significant influence on the inverse flux estimates
      • Conclusions drawn from different constraints disagree in some regions
      • The Amazonian biosphere is estimated to release 0.6 PgC each year
    12. Reconciling the differences between top-down and bottom-up estimates of nitrous oxide emissions for the U.S. Corn Belt (pages 746–754)

      T. J. Griffis, X. Lee, J. M. Baker, M. P. Russelle, X. Zhang, R. Venterea and D. B. Millet

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20066

      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • N2O emissions were estimated from a 244 m tall tower located in the US Corn Belt
      • Tall tower flux estimates were 2 to 9-fold greater than bottom-up inventories
      • Inventories may be biased low because they underestimate indirect emissions
    13. Estimation of atmospheric nutrient inputs to the Atlantic Ocean from 50°N to 50°S based on large-scale field sampling: Iron and other dust-associated elements (pages 755–767)

      A. R. Baker, C. Adams, T. G. Bell, T. D. Jickells and L. Ganzeveld

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20062

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • 3-monthly total Fe inputs for the Atlantic are in general agreement with models
      • Broad-scale Fe solubility appears to be higher than those derived from models
      • Input from wet deposition varies significantly according to rainfall rate
    14. Evidence of active dinitrogen fixation in surface waters of the eastern tropical South Pacific during El Niño and La Niña events and evaluation of its potential nutrient controls (pages 768–779)

      J. Dekaezemacker, S. Bonnet, O. Grosso, T. Moutin, M. Bressac and D.G. Capone

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20063

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • High N2 fixation was measured in the OMZ and below the euphotic zone
      • High N2 fixation was measured in water masses with high nitrate concentrations
      • Fe, DOC, and DIN additions through (in)direct mechanism stimulated N2 fixation
    15. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A modeling assessment of the role of reversible scavenging in controlling oceanic dissolved Cu and Zn distributions (pages 780–791)

      S. H. Little, D. Vance, M. Siddall and E. Gasson

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20073

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • A 1-D reversible scavenging model is applied to oceanic [Cu] and [Zn]
      • Dissolved Cu is well described by the process of reversible scavenging
      • Dissolved Zn is not, reflecting its behaviour as a true nutrient-type element
    16. The importance of crop growth modeling to interpret the Δ14CO2 signature of annual plants (pages 792–803)

      D. Bozhinova, M. Combe, S. W. L. Palstra, H. A. J. Meijer, M. C. Krol and W. Peters

      Article first published online: 30 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20065

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • We advise to use crop models to simulate the 14C content of plant samples
      • Plant phenology results in different 14C signal in the plant organs
      • Weather variations induce spatial gradients in crop growth and thus 14C content
    17. Global assessment of limitation to symbiotic nitrogen fixation by phosphorus availability in terrestrial ecosystems using a meta-analysis approach (pages 804–815)

      Laurent Augusto, Florian Delerue, Anne Gallet-Budynek and David L. Achat

      Article first published online: 30 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20069

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Phosphorus (P) bioavailability limits symbiotic fixation of nitrogen (SNF)
      • P limits N2-fixation through plant growth but has minor impact on fixation rate
      • Control of global SNF by P is proportional to its effect on plant biomass
    18. Water column denitrification rates in the oxygen minimum layer of the Pacific Ocean along 32°S (pages 816–827)

      Il-Nam Kim, Dong-Ha Min and Alison M. Macdonald

      Article first published online: 30 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20070

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • We estimated water column denitrification in the P06 (~32{degree sign}S) OML.
      • We showed spatial variation of the water column denitrification rates.
      • The OML denitrification may contribute to the Pacific nitrogen budget.
    19. Carbon burial in soil sediments from Holocene agricultural erosion, Central Europe (pages 828–835)

      Thomas Hoffmann, Manuela Schlummer, Bastiaan Notebaert, Gert Verstraeten and Oliver Korup

      Article first published online: 30 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20071

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Anthropogenic sediment storage on hillslope exceeds floodplain storage in CE
      • OC storage in floodplains dominates millinial-scale sink
      • OC burial in floodplains and on hillslopes > OC storage in lakes and reservoirs
    20. Exploring global nitrogen and phosphorus flows in urban wastes during the twentieth century (pages 836–846)

      A. L. Morée, A. H. W. Beusen, A. F. Bouwman and W. J. Willems

      Article first published online: 30 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20072

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • A global model was made to inventory urban 20th century nutrient flows
      • Global surface water discharge increased ~3.5-fold for N and ~4.5-fold for P
      • At present human excreta and detergents are the major urban nutrient sources
    21. Combined constraints on global ocean primary production using observations and models (pages 847–858)

      Erik T. Buitenhuis, Taketo Hashioka and Corinne Le Quéré

      Article first published online: 30 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20074

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Global ocean particulate net primary production is estimated at 58 +- 7 Pg C y-1
      • A dynamic photosynthesis model improves modelled Chl interannual variability
      • A statistical method to derive a global rate from point observations and models
    22. Post-depositional processes: What really happens to new atmospheric iron in the ocean's surface? (pages 859–870)

      Matthieu Bressac and Cécile Guieu

      Article first published online: 30 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20076

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Atmospheric iron dissolution is driven by the dissolved organic matter pool
      • Seawater biogeochemical conditions are a key determinant of iron solubility
      • Lithogenic carbon pump is likely a major pathway for organic carbon export
    23. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Iron fertilization enhanced net community production but not downward particle flux during the Southern Ocean iron fertilization experiment LOHAFEX (pages 871–881)

      Patrick Martin, Michiel Rutgers van der Loeff, Nicolas Cassar, Pieter Vandromme, Francesco d'Ovidio, Lars Stemmann, R. Rengarajan, Melena Soares, Humberto E. González, Friederike Ebersbach, Richard S. Lampitt, Richard Sanders, Bruce A. Barnett, Victor Smetacek and S. Wajih A. Naqvi

      Article first published online: 30 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20077

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Primary productivity and net community production increased upon fertilization
      • Due to silicon limitation, a bloom of small flagellates, not diatoms, developed
      • Particle flux did not increase and was similar to fluxes in unfertilized waters
    24. Carbonate ion concentrations, ocean carbon storage, and atmospheric CO2 (pages 882–893)

      Philip Goodwin and Jonathan Maitland Lauderdale

      Article first published online: 30 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20078

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Relates carbonate ion concentrations to ocean carbon storage
      • Theory accurately predicts carbonate ion concentrations in models
      • Identifies what we learn from paleocarbonate ion reconstructions
    25. Parameterizing bubble-mediated air-sea gas exchange and its effect on ocean ventilation (pages 894–905)

      Jun-Hong Liang, Curtis Deutsch, James C. McWilliams, Burkard Baschek, Peter P. Sullivan and David Chiba

      Article first published online: 30 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20080

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • A parameterization for bubble-mediated gas exchange is proposed.
      • Bubble effects are important for ocean ventilation.
    26. Age dependence of mineral dissolution and precipitation rates (pages 906–919)

      Daniel Reeves and Daniel H. Rothman

      Article first published online: 11 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20082

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Age and residence time indicate transport and reaction limitations, respectively
      • We develop several mathematical models that predict observed dependence
      • A reprecipitation model is consistent with calculated sediment diagenesis rates
    27. Intensive mixing along an island chain controls oceanic biogeochemical cycles (pages 920–929)

      Jun Nishioka, Takeshi Nakatsuka, Yutaka W. Watanabe, Ichiro Yasuda, Kenshi Kuma, Hiroshi Ogawa, Naoto Ebuchi, Alexey Scherbinin, Yuri N. Volkov, Takayuki Shiraiwa and Masaaki Wakatsuchi

      Article first published online: 11 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20088

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • A section profile of Fe was measured from the Okhtosk Sea to the Pacific Ocean
      • We demonstrate the role of mixing at Island chain on biogeochemical cycle
      • We reveal the HNLC water formation processes in the subarctic Pacific
    28. Climate-related variations in atmospheric Sb and Tl in the EPICA Dome C ice (East Antarctica) during the past 800,000 years (pages 930–940)

      Soon Do Hur, Tseren-Ochir Soyol-Erdene, Hee Jin Hwang, Changhee Han, Paolo Gabrielli, Carlo Barbante, Claude F. Boutron and Sungmin Hong

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20079

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • The Antarctic ice record shows large natural changes in atmospheric Sb and Tl
      • Sb and Tl fluxes appear to have strongly varied with climatic conditions
      • The present-day Sb flux is double the highest natural level
    29. Prevalence of strong vertical CO2 and O2 variability in the top meters of the ocean (pages 941–949)

      Maria Ll. Calleja, Carlos M. Duarte, Marta Álvarez, Raquel Vaquer-Sunyer, Susana Agustí and Gerhard J. Herndl

      Article first published online: 13 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20081

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • High pCO2 vertical variability within the upper meters of the ocean surface
      • Only 11% of pCO2 variability appears to be explained by temperature changes
      • Biological processes exert a control in the observed CO2 vertical heterogeneity
    30. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Eddy compensation and controls of the enhanced sea-to-air CO2 flux during positive phases of the Southern Annular Mode (pages 950–961)

      Carolina O. Dufour, Julien Le Sommer, Marion Gehlen, James C. Orr, Jean-Marc Molines, Jennifer Simeon and Bernard Barnier

      Article first published online: 23 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20090

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • At the surface, SAM-enhanced DIC is partly compensated by enhanced alkalinity
      • The mixed-layer DIC in the AZ increases mainly from vertical diffusion
    31. The proportion of remineralized nitrate on the ice-covered eastern Bering Sea shelf evidenced from the oxygen isotope ratio of nitrate (pages 962–971)

      Julie Granger, Maria G. Prokopenko, Calvin W. Mordy and Daniel M. Sigman

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20075

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Nitrate 18O/16O ratios decrease shoreward in ice-covered shelf waters
      • Nitrate inshore originates from nitrification in situ
      • Remineralization dominates seasonal nutrient replenishment on much of the shelf
    32. Global modeling of soil nitrous oxide emissions from natural processes (pages 972–989)

      E. Saikawa, C. A. Schlosser and R. G. Prinn

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20087

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • We incorporated the DNDC module in the Community Land Model
      • Model results reproduce the observations in the tropics well
      • Soil N2O emissions are lower in El Nino and higher in La Nina years

SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION