High-resolution comparative genomic hybridization (HR-CGH) analysis was performed on DNA purified from laser-capture microdissected carcinoma in situ (CIS) cells from nine cases of CIS, either from tissue without any invasive tumor or from testicular parenchyma adjacent to seminoma, nonseminoma, or a combined germ cell tumor. Before CGH analysis, DNA was amplified by degenerate oligonucleotide primed PCR (DOP-PCR) and directly labeled with a mixture of FITC-dUTP and FITC-dCTP. CGH analysis revealed extra chromosome arm 12p material in six out of seven cases with CIS adjacent to overt tumors, but only a diminutive gain of 12q was noted in one of the two cases of CIS without invasive elements. In addition, gains of parts of chromosome 8 (3/7) and losses of chromosome 5 (2/7) were demonstrated in CIS adjacent to invasive tumors. Gains of parts of chromosome 7 were found in CIS adjacent to seminoma (4/4), whereas relative gains of chromosome 15 were identified in some cases of CIS adjacent to seminoma and in isolated CIS in comparison to CIS adjacent to nonseminoma. Our data seem to indicate that extra 12p material is not present in the “dormant” CIS cell before development of an invasive tumor. The gain of extra chromosome 12 material may not be an early event in the neoplastic transformation, but is most likely associated with a more malignant progression of the CIS cell. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.