Cytogenetic analysis of short-term cultures from 25 malignant fibrous histiocytomas (MFH) revealed clonal chromosome abnormalities in 17 tumors: ten storiform-pleomorphic and seven myxoid MFH. Telomeric associations, rings, and dicentric chromosomes were present in 11 tumors and cytogenetic signs of gene amplification (homogeneously staining regions and double minute chromosomes) in four. The breakpoint distribution of the numerous structural rearrangements was nonrandom. The chromosome bands most frequently affected were 19p13 (in eight tumors; eight rearrangements gave rise to 19p+ markers, some of which looked similar, and an r(19) was found in one case), 11p11 (in seven tumors; three translocations and four deletions), 1q11 (in seven tumors; one translocation and six deletions), and 3p12 (in six tumors; all deletions). Other bands involved at least four times were 1p36, 5p15, and 20q13. Of particular clinical interest was the observation that tumors with 19p+ seemed to have a pronounced tendency to recur locally (local recurrence in five of eight tumors with 19p+ compared to one of nine in tumors without this aberration; observation period 4–16 months).