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Figure S1. The St. Lawrence Valley region, with Fort Coulonge on the Ottawa River also shown. Figure taken from Google Earth 2013: Google Earth 7.1. St-Lawrence Valley 42°N, 75°W, Satellite layer.

Figure S2. Montreal and region. Figure taken from Google Earth 2013: Google Earth 7.1. Montreal, Qc 45°N, 73°W, Satellite layer.

Figure S3. Quebec City and region. Figure taken from Google Earth 2013: Google Earth 7.1. Quebec City, Qc 47°N, 72°W, Satellite layer.

Figure S4. Frequency histograms of the original morning observations for (a) Gaultier 8 a.m. (Quebec City) 1742–1748, 1754; (b) Cleghorn sunrise (Blink Bonny Gardens) 1829–1833; (c) McCord2 8 a.m. (St James Street) 1831–1842; (d) Sutherland 7 a.m. (Montreal) 1844–1848; (e) Liveright sunrise (Fort Coulogne) 1823–1833; (f) Glackmeyer sunrise (Quebec City region) 1844–1859.

Figure S5. Frequency histograms of the original afternoon observations for (a) Gaultier 2 p.m. (Quebec City) 1742–1748, 1754; (b) Cleghorn noon (Blink Bonny Gardens) 1829–1833; (c) McCord2 9 p.m. (St James Street) 1831–1842; (d) Sutherland 3 p.m. (Montreal) 1844–1848; (e) Liveright noon (Fort Coulogne) 1823–1833; (f) Glackmeyer noon (Quebec City region) 1844–1859.

Figure S6. Relative frequencies of morning temperature values converted to Celsius degrees (a) Gaultier 8 a.m. (Quebec City) 1742–1748, 1754; (b) Cleghorn sunrise (Blink Bonny Gardens) 1829–1833; (c) McCord2 8 a.m. (St James Street) 1831–1842; (d) Sutherland 7 a.m. (Montreal) 1844–1848; (e) Liveright sunrise (Fort Coulogne) 1823–1833; (f) Glackmeyer sunrise (Quebec City region) 1844–1859. Dashed lines show the frequency modern values observed at the same time of day as the historical observers for Quebec City airport, 1953–2008 (Figure 6(a,f)) and Montreal (Dorval) airport, 1953–2008 (Figure 6(b–e)).

Figure S7. Relative frequencies of afternoon values converted to Celsius degrees. (a) Gaultier 2 p.m. (Quebec City) 1742–1748, 1754; (b) Cleghorn noon (Blink Bonny Gardens) 1829–1833; (c) McCord2 9 p.m. (St James Street) 1831–1842; (d) Sutherland 3 p.m (Montreal) 1844–1848; (e) Liveright noon (Fort Coulogne) 1823–1833; (f) Glackmeyer noon (Quebec City region) 1844–1859. Dashed lines show the frequency modern values observed at the same time of day as the historical observers for Quebec City airport, 1953–2008 (Figure 6(a,f)) and Montreal (Dorval) airport, 1953–2008 (Figure 6(b-e)).

Figure S8. (a) position of the north wall thermometer located near a window next to an uninsulated brick wall; (b) Thermometer shelter in a garden setting. The screen is located approximately 8m to the north of the wall mounted thermometer.

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