• transgenic technique;
  • stable transgenic line;
  • Minos;
  • multiple copies of transgenes;
  • FISH


Microinjection of the Minos transposon is the only reported technique for generating stable transgenic lines in the cosmopolitan ascidian, Ciona intestinalis. To establish a more amenable method for generating stable transgenic Ciona, we examined the possibility of using electroporation of DNA into eggs. From 0–44.4% of electroporated individuals transmitted transgenes to the next generation. The transgene was integrated into one chromosome and multiple copies of the transgene were inserted into one site of the chromosome, indicating that electroporation is an easy and powerful technique for achieving stable transgenesis in C. intestinalis. Together with possible inland culture of this ascidian, this technique will be useful for generating stable lines which have reporter gene expression in a specific tissue or organ and the generation of transposase-expressing stable transgenic (jump-starter) lines and mutator lines which contain a lot of Minos transposons in an insertion position. genesis 41:67–72, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.