• Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM);
  • HLA;
  • 5′ insulin gene;
  • RFLP;
  • segregation distortion


A scheme is outlined for analyzing the genotypic contributions of two unlinked loci in producing a disease, using DR and the 5′ insulin locus (INS) in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) as examples. Although genotypes of both DR and INS play roles in IDDM susceptibility, both the relatively small size of the Genetic Analysis Workshop 5 (GAW5) data set and the apparently limited magnitudes of the contributory effects prevent the identification of the exact nature of the association of these two loci in disease causation. The Gm allotypes showed no association with IDDM, either alone or in combination with other variables. Association of reactivity among the six strains of Coxsackie B virus is described, with no evidence of associations with DR type and IDDM found. The unaffected offspring segregated DR alleles according to expectations, while the segregation of affected alleles revealed the various contributions of DR alleles to IDDM pathogenesis, with the suggestion that DR4 from fathers is more diabetogenic than that from mothers. Lastly, a method is described for revealing the accuracy of typing in family data, and applied to RFLP variants subdividing DR3.