Multilocus linkage disequilibrium mapping by the decay of haplotype sharing with samples of related individuals



We consider the problem of multilocus linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping of a trait-associated variant from case-control samples in which some individuals may be related. Our method, which we call DHS-R, is an extension of the decay of haplotype sharing (DHS) method of McPeek and Strahs ([1999] Am J Hum Genet 65:858–875) and Strahs and McPeek ([2003] IMS Lecture Notes Monograph Series, Vol. 40.). The DHS-R method shares the main features of the DHS method: (1) it allows construction of a confidence interval for the location of a trait-associated variant; (2) it allows for missing observations and unphased genotype data, with the uncertainty in the haplotypes taken into account in the analysis; and (3) it allows for heterogeneity, mutation, recombination, and background LD. The main advances of the DHS-R are (1) the ability to include individuals of arbitrary known relationship (including inbreeding) in the case and control samples; (2) an extension to allow partially-phased haplotypes derived from case-parent trio genotype data; and (3) an extension to allow for genotyping error in the model. Our method, which uses a hidden Markov model for likelihood calculation and maximization, has the advantage of being computationally feasible even in a large, complex pedigree. Simulations based on a 13-generation, 1,623-member Hutterite pedigree demonstrate accurate coverage of the confidence intervals for location of the variant. We apply the method to fine-mapping of a susceptibility locus for bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) in the Hutterites. The results confirm the importance of taking into account the relatedness of individuals in LD mapping. Genet. Epidemiol. 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.