• CYP2D6;
  • association mapping;
  • linkage disequilibrium map;
  • LDU;
  • SNPs;
  • haplotypes


We describe an association mapping approach that utilizes linkage disequilibrium (LD) maps in LD units (LDU). This method uses composite likelihood to combine information from all single marker tests, and applies a model with a parameter for the location of the causal polymorphism. Previous analyses of the poor drug metabolizer phenotype provided evidence of the substantial utility of LDU maps for disease gene association mapping. Using LDU locations for the 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) flanking the CYP2D6 gene on chromosome 22, the most common functional polymorphism within the gene was located at 15 kb from its true location. Here, we examine the performance of this mapping approach by exploiting the high-density LDU map constructed from the HapMap data. Expressing the locations of the 27 SNPs in LDU from the HapMap LDU map, analysis yielded an estimated location that is only 0.3 kb away from the CYP2D6 gene. This supports the use of the high marker density HapMap-derived LDU map for association mapping even though it is derived from a much smaller number of individuals compared to the CYP2D6 sample. We also examine the performance of 2-SNP haplotypes. Using the same modelling procedures and composite likelihood as for single SNPs, the haplotype data provided much poorer localization compared to single SNP analysis. Haplotypes generate more autocorrelation through multiple inclusions of the same SNPs, which could inflate significance in association studies. The results of the present study demonstrate the great potential of the genome HapMap LDU maps for high-resolution mapping of complex phenotypes. Genet. Epidemiol. 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.