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Keywords:

  • simulation;
  • ordered subset analysis;
  • quantitative trait locus;
  • gene-environment interaction;
  • heterogeneity

Abstract

Datasets collected for linkage analyses of complex human diseases often include a number of clinical or environmental covariates. In this study, we evaluated the performance of three linkage analysis methods when the relationship between continuous covariates and disease risk or linkage heterogeneity was modeled in three different ways: (1) The covariate distribution is determined by a quantitative trait locus (QTL), which contributes indirectly to the disease risk; (2) the covariate is not genetically determined, but influences the disease risk through statistical interaction with a disease susceptibility locus; (3) the covariate distribution differs in families linked or unlinked to a particular disease susceptibility locus. We analyzed simulated datasets with a regression-based QTL analysis, a nonparametric analysis of the binary affection status, and the ordered subset analysis (OSA). We found that a significant OSA result may be due to a gene that influences variability in the population distribution of a continuous disease risk factor. Conversely, a regression-based QTL analysis may detect the presence of gene-environment (G × E) interaction in a sample of primarily affected individuals. The contribution of unaffected siblings and the size of baseline lod scores may help distinguish between QTL and G × E models. As illustrated by a linkage study of multiplex families with age-related macular degeneration, our findings assist in the interpretation of analysis results in real datasets. They suggest that the side-by-side evaluation of OSA and QTL results may provide important information about the relationship of measured covariates with either disease risk or linkage heterogeneity. Genet. Epidemiol. 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.