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Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems

Cover image for Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems

November 2011

Volume 12, Issue 11

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      Compositional trends of Icelandic basalts: Implications for short–length scale lithological heterogeneity in mantle plumes

      O. Shorttle and J. Maclennan

      Article first published online: 18 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GC003748

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      Key Points

      • The mantle under Iceland contains shorth–length scale lithological heterogeneity
      • The enriched mantle beneath Iceland is more fusible than the depleted source
      • Excess crustal thickness beneath Iceland is mostly from high mantle temperatures
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      Focused modern denudation of the Longmen Shan margin, eastern Tibetan Plateau

      Jing Liu-Zeng, Li Wen, Michael Oskin and Lingsen Zeng

      Article first published online: 15 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GC003652

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      Key Points

      • Enhanced denudation in 50 km wide band on the hanging wall of the Pengguan fault
      • Modern denudation of 0.5–0.8 mm/yr similar to the kyr- to Myr-timescale rates
      • The Longmen Shan margin may have reached a flux steady state
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      Volcanic morphology of West Mata Volcano, NE Lau Basin, based on high-resolution bathymetry and depth changes

      David A. Clague, Jennifer B. Paduan, David W. Caress, Hans Thomas, William W. Chadwick Jr. and Susan G. Merle

      Article first published online: 12 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GC003791

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      Key Points

      • High-resolution bathymetry reveals volcanic history of submarine volcanoes
      • Boninite arc volcanoes are mostly pyroclastic debris at angle of repose
      • Small arc volcanoes have rift zones and calderas
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      Constraints on the rates of degassing and convection in basaltic open-vent volcanoes

      José L. Palma, Stephen Blake and Eliza S. Calder

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GC003715

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      Key Points

      • Better understanding of magma convection in conduits, which was modeled
      • Estimation of conduit size, degassing, and magma ascent rate
      • Constraints on expected gas emissions from magma composition and properties
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      Distributed deformation ahead of the Cocos-Nazca Rift at the Galapagos triple junction

      Deborah K. Smith, Hans Schouten, Wen-lu Zhu, Laurent G. J. Montési and Johnson R. Cann

      Article first published online: 8 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GC003689

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      Key Points

      • Distributed deformation is observed at the Galapagos TJ
      • Secondary cracks form north and south of the C-N Rift at the EPR
      • Crack locations are controlled by stresses from the tip of the C-N Rift
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      Planform of small-scale convection under the island arc

      S. Honda

      Article first published online: 8 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GC003827

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      Key Points

      • Dynamics of mantle wedge possibly related to the volcanism
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      A survey of volcanic deformation on Java using ALOS PALSAR interferometric time series

      Belle Philibosian and Mark Simons

      Article first published online: 8 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GC003775

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      Key Points

      • We present a strategy for monitoring volcanic deformation in vegetated regions
      • Short time interval interferograms (<6 months) provide the best correlation
      • Over 2 years, we observed two volcanic inflation events, plus other phenomena
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      Tectonic geomorphometrics of the western United States: Speculations on the surface expression of upper mantle processes

      D. Coblentz and K. E. Karlstrom

      Article first published online: 8 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GC003579

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      Key Points

      • Topography and upper mantle processes are correlated
      • The 100 km scale upper mantle convection is drving surface uplift
      • The physiographic provinces in the western United States are neotectonic features
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      Geologically current motion of 56 plates relative to the no-net-rotation reference frame

      Donald F. Argus, Richard G. Gordon and Charles DeMets

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GC003751

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      Key Points

      • 31 plates are added to MORVEL to describe geologically current plate motion
      • The no-net-rotation frame for these plates, NNR-MORVEL56, is determined
      • NNR-MORVEL56 differs significantly from NNR-NUVEL1A and other realizations
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      A Holocene paleosecular variation record from the northwestern Barents Sea continental margin

      Leonardo Sagnotti, Patrizia Macrì, Renata Lucchi, Michele Rebesco and Angelo Camerlenghi

      Article first published online: 1 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GC003810

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      Key Points

      • This study allows a reconstruction of the Holocene PSV at high N latitudes
      • The data provide a high-resolution age model for paleoenvironmental studies
      • The data provide valuable experimental constraints for geomagnetic field models

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