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Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems

Cover image for Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems

December 2011

Volume 12, Issue 12

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      Behavior of osmium at the freshwater–saltwater interface based on Ganga derived sediments from the estuarine zone

      M. Paul, L. Reisberg, N. Vigier and C. France-Lanord

      Article first published online: 31 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GC003831

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      Key Points

      • Osmium behavior in the freshwater-saltwater transition zone in estuaries
      • Impact from the Ganga sediments on the seawater Os
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      New 40Ar/39Ar age progression for the Louisville hot spot trail and implications for inter–hot spot motion

      Anthony A. P. Koppers, Molly D. Gowen, Lauren E. Colwell, Jeffrey S. Gee, Peter F. Lonsdale, John J. Mahoney and Robert A. Duncan

      Article first published online: 30 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GC003804

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      Key Points

      • Ages provide evidence for a systematic age-progressive trend from 71 to 21 Ma
      • Indications for a more eastern location of the present-day Louisville hot spot
      • APM models taking into account hot spot motion provide best fit to seamount ages
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      GPS measurements of near-field deformation along the southern Dead Sea Fault System

      Eid al Tarazi, Jafar Abu Rajab, Francisco Gomez, William Cochran, Rani Jaafar and Matthieu Ferry

      Article first published online: 29 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GC003736

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      Key Points

      • GPS measurements suggest 4.7–4.9 mm/yr of slip along the southern DSF
      • Along-strike variations in fault locking depth are documented
      • Variations in fault locking correspond with upper mantle thermal structure
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      An experimental investigation of the interactions between reaction-driven and stress-driven melt segregation: 1. Application to mantle melt extraction

      D. S. H. King, B. K. Holtzman and D. L. Kohlstedt

      Article first published online: 29 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GC003684

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      Key Points

      • New experiment design allows simultaneous deformation and melt-rock reaction
      • The two processes lead to greater melt infiltration than either mechanism alone
      • These processes could be how small amounts of melt coalesce in source regions
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      Transient hydraulic fracturing and gas release in methane hydrate settings: A case study from southern Hydrate Ridge

      Hugh Daigle, Nathan L. Bangs and Brandon Dugan

      Article first published online: 29 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GC003841

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      Key Points

      • Gas pressures at Hydrate Ridge drive episodic fracturing and methane venting
      • We model pressure buildup using reservoir constraints from two seismic surveys
      • The interpreted gas reservoir will be depleted within a few decades
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      An experimental investigation of the interactions between reaction-driven and stress-driven melt segregation: 2. Disaggregation at high melt fraction

      D. S. H. King, B. K. Holtzman and D. L. Kohlstedt

      Article first published online: 29 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GC003685

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      Key Points

      • New experiment design allows simultaneous deformation and melt infiltration
      • Deformation facilitates disaggregation at a melt source-sink boundary
      • Combined deformation and melt-rock reaction may facilitate localized deformation
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      Rock magnetic properties of a soil developed on an alluvial deposit at Buttermilk Creek, Texas, USA

      Anna K. Lindquist, Joshua M. Feinberg and Michael R. Waters

      Article first published online: 28 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GC003848

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      Key Points

      • Alluvial soils produce interpretable magnetic signals
      • The soil and artifacts at the Friedkin site are in stratigraphic order
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      Environmental and chemical controls on palagonitization

      Bruce D. Pauly, Peter Schiffman, Robert A. Zierenberg and David A. Clague

      Article first published online: 28 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GC003639

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      Key Points

      • Original sample porosity exerts strong control on reaction extent
      • REEs are immobile; major-element mass changes are in some cases very large
      • Palagonitization appears not to be an isovolumetric process
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      Dynamics of subduction initiation with different evolutionary pathways

      Wei Leng and Michael Gurnis

      Article first published online: 28 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GC003877

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      Key Points

      • Subduction initiation have different evolutionary pathways
      • The pathways are controlled by plasticity and subducting plate age
      • Our model results are applied to explain different geological observations
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      Origin of minor and trace element compositional diversity in anorthitic feldspar phenocrysts and melt inclusions from the Juan de Fuca Ridge

      David T. Adams, Roger L. Nielsen, Adam J. R. Kent and Frank J. Tepley III

      Article first published online: 22 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GC003778

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      Key Points

      • Melt inclusions trap some of the geochemical signal of their parent magma
      • Different levels of diffusive re-equilibration are evident in plagioclase
      • Geochemical patterns observed in plagioclase phenocrysts vary between samples
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      Crustal resistivity structure of the southwestern transect of the Rif Cordillera (Morocco)

      Farida Anahnah, Jesús Galindo-Zaldívar, Ahmed Chalouan, Jaume Pous, Patricia Ruano, Antonio Pedrera, Ana Ruiz-Constán, M'Fedal Ahmamou, Mohamed Benmakhlouf, Pedro Ibarra and Eva Asensio

      Article first published online: 21 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GC003783

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      Key Points

      • Alpine orogen on variscan basement
      • Southern branch of Gibraltar Arc
      • Integration of geophysical and geological data
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      Sedimentological and geochemical evidence for multistage failure of volcanic island landslides: A case study from Icod landslide on north Tenerife, Canary Islands

      James E. Hunt, Russell B. Wynn, Douglas G. Masson, Peter J. Talling and Damon A. H. Teagle

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GC003740

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      Key Points

      • Turbidites are capable of recording the mechanism of the landslide
      • The 160 ka Icod landslide from Tenerife was a multistage retrogressive landslide
      • Determining landslide mechanism enables resolution of tsunamigenic potential
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      In situ remagnetization experiments of loess on the Chinese Loess Plateau: Evidence for localized post-depositional remanent magnetization

      Reidar Løvlie, Ronghua Wang and Xisheng Wang

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GC003830

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      Key Points

      • In situ experiments show partial remagnetization of Chinese loess
      • Remagnetization caused by partial realignment of detrital grains
      • Unlocking of grains by differential thermal expansion of matrix minerals
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      Time-dependent changes in volcanic inflation rate near Three Sisters, Oregon, revealed by InSAR

      S. N. Riddick and D. A. Schmidt

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GC003826

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      Key Points

      • Ground uplift near Three Sisters started gradually between 1996-1997
      • Uplift is ongoing and caused by a deep volcanic intrusion
      • Connection between the only seismic swarm and the intrusion behavior
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      Mineral magnetism of dusty olivine: A credible recorder of pre-accretionary remanence

      Sophie-Charlotte L. L. Lappe, Nathan S. Church, Takeshi Kasama, Alice Bastos da Silva Fanta, Geoff Bromiley, Rafal E. Dunin-Borkowski, Joshua M. Feinberg, Sara Russell and Richard J. Harrison

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GC003811

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      Key Points

      • Dusty olivine is a credible carrier of pre-accretionary remanence
      • Remanence is carried by both single-domain and single-vortex states
      • Remanence blocks immediately below Tc and remains stable for 4.6 Ga at any T
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      Neotectonics of the Owen Fracture Zone (NW Indian Ocean): Structural evolution of an oceanic strike-slip plate boundary

      M. Rodriguez, M. Fournier, N. Chamot-Rooke, P. Huchon, J. Bourget, M. Sorbier, S. Zaragosi and A. Rabaute

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GC003731

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      Key Points

      • Neotectonics of the Arabia-India transform plate boundary
      • Stepover migration along strike-slip fault
      • Indus turbiditic channels as landmarks for relative chronology
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      Correction to “Three-dimensional Moho topography in Italy: New constraints from receiver functions and controlled source seismology”

      R. Di Stefano, I. Bianchi, M. G. Ciaccio, G. Carrara and E. Kissling

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GC003967

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      Seismically damaged regolith as self-organized fragile geological feature

      Norman H. Sleep

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GC003837

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      Key Points

      • Repeated dynamic strain damages shallow regolith
      • The dynamic stress depends on shear modulus and S-wave velocity
      • Crack damage decreases S-wave velocity until material just become anelastic
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      Lowermost mantle anisotropy beneath the northwestern Pacific: Evidence from PcS, ScS, SKS, and SKKS phases

      Xiaobo He and Maureen D. Long

      Article first published online: 14 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GC003779

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      Key Points

      • Observation of the lowermost mantle anisotropy beneath NW Pacific
      • Possible presence of fairly large, coherent region of deformation in lowermost mantle
      • Solid-state flow at base of mantle induces a LPO of lowermost mantle minerals
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      Seismic triggering of landslides and turbidity currents offshore Portugal

      D. G. Masson, R. G. Arzola, R. B. Wynn, J. E. Hunt and P. P. E. Weaver

      Article first published online: 14 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GC003839

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      Key Points

      • Landslides triggered by earthquakes
      • Basin turbidites record palaeoseismicity
      • Erosional events on continental margin correlated with basin turbidites
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      Three-dimensional structure of P-wave anisotropy in the presence of small-scale convection in the mantle wedge

      M. Morishige and S. Honda

      Article first published online: 13 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GC003866

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      Key Points

      • Signals of small-scale convection would be seen more clearly in vertical plane
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      Does sea level influence mid-ocean ridge magmatism on Milankovitch timescales?

      David C. Lund and Paul D. Asimow

      Article first published online: 13 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GC003693

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      Key Points

      • Glacial-interglacial changes in sea level should affect mantle melting at ridges
      • The sea level influence should be greatest at slow ridges
      • Hydrothermal proxies may be consistent with sea level effect
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      Thermal effects of hydrothermal circulation and seamount subduction: Temperatures in the Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment transect, Japan

      G. A. Spinelli and R. N. Harris

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GC003727

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      Key Points

      • Seamount subduction may change ocean crust hydrogeology and decollement position
      • Fluid circulation in the NanTroSEIZE area reduces subduction zone temperatures
      • Subduction of all sediment in wake of a seamount lowers margin toe temperatures
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      Seismogenic characteristics of the Northern Mariana shallow thrust zone from local array data

      Erica L. Emry, Douglas A. Wiens, Hajime Shiobara and Hiroko Sugioka

      Article first published online: 9 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GC003853

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      Key Points

      • Plate interface seismicity in Northern Marianas extends to depths of 60 km
      • Seismicity is variable along strike and along dip of the seismogenic zone
      • Aseismicity of Mariana subduction zone is due to variable fault strength
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      Rock magnetism of hematitic “bombs” from the Araguainha impact structure, Brazil

      Luigi Jovane, Elder Yokoyama, Takele Seda, Russell F. Burmester, Ricardo I. F. Trindade and Bernard A. Housen

      Article first published online: 8 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GC003758

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      Key Points

      • The paper is the first use of rock magnetic analysis for the hematite impact
      • We present a series of unique analysis like FORC versus temperature study hematite
      • We produce proofs that introduce a new hypothesis for formation of this material
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      The nature of the crust beneath the Afar triple junction: Evidence from receiver functions

      J. O. S. Hammond, J.-M. Kendall, G. W. Stuart, D. Keir, C. Ebinger, A. Ayele and M. Belachew

      Article first published online: 7 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GC003738

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      Key Points

      • The crust throughout Afar contains partial melt in the lower crust
      • Continental fragments are present within the Afar depression
      • The Red Sea rift axis has migrated eastward since the Miocene
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      Stress distribution at the transition from subduction to continental collision (northwestern and central Betic Cordillera)

      A. Ruiz-Constán, J. Galindo-Zaldívar, A. Pedrera, B. Célérier and C. Marín-Lechado

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GC003824

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      Key Points

      • State of stress at the Gibraltar Arc
      • Arched remnant subducted slab has evolved to a context of continental collision
      • Present-day subduction at the Gibraltar Arc is practically deceased
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      Deep-seated downslope slip during strong seismic shaking

      Norman H. Sleep

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GC003838

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      Key Points

      • Dynamic acceleration drives classical downslope creep on steep slopes
      • One (1) g accelerations will cause downslope creep on shallow slopes, not observed
      • Near-field velocity pulse weakens regolith leading to ~1 m downslope movement

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