Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems

Cover image for Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems

July 2013

Volume 14, Issue 7

Pages 2063–2545

  1. Regular Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
    1. SAHKE geophysical transect reveals crustal and subduction zone structure at the southern Hikurangi margin, New Zealand (pages 2063–2083)

      S. Henrys, A. Wech, R. Sutherland, T. Stern, M. Savage, H. Sato, K. Mochizuki, T. Iwasaki, D. Okaya, A. Seward, B. Tozer, J. Townend, E. Kurashimo, T. Iidaka and T. Ishiyama

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ggge.20136

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      Key Points

      • Seismic array investigated structure of the subduction plate boundary
      • Bend of subducting plate is associated with splay faults and underplating
      • Increase in plate dip marks transition from stable to unstable slip regimes
    2. Sulfide geochronology along the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge (pages 2084–2099)

      John W. Jamieson, Mark D. Hannington, David A. Clague, Deborah S. Kelley, John R. Delaney, James F. Holden, Margaret K. Tivey and Linda E. Kimpe

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ggge.20133

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      Key Points

      • 226Ra/Ba dating can be used to reconstruct segment scale venting history
      • Hydrothermal venting within the Endeavour axial valley is over 3000 years old
      • 226Ra/Ba bridges an important dating age gap between 200 to 2000 years old
    3. Turbidite record of frequency and source of large volume (>100 km3) Canary Island landslides in the last 1.5 Ma: Implications for landslide triggers and geohazards (pages 2100–2123)

      J. E. Hunt, R. B. Wynn, P. J. Talling and D. G. Masson

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ggge.20139

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      Key Points

      • Madeira Abyssal Plain volcaniclastic deposits represent Canary Island landslides
      • Turbidite composition and age correlate deposits to known landslides
      • Landslides correlate to periods of volcanism and warmer climate conditions
    4. A new seismogeodetic approach applied to GPS and accelerometer observations of the 2012 Brawley seismic swarm: Implications for earthquake early warning (pages 2124–2142)

      Jianghui Geng, Yehuda Bock, Diego Melgar, Brendan W. Crowell and Jennifer S. Haase

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ggge.20144

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      Key Points

      • Seismogeodesy detects P wave arrivals for earthquakes of societal significance
      • A tightly-coupled seismogeodetic filter for early warning of large earthquakes
      • PPP with ambiguity resolution is an optimal method for large networks
    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Comparison and calibration of nonheating paleointensity methods: A case study using dusty olivine (pages 2143–2158)

      Sophie-Charlotte L. L. Lappe, Joshua M. Feinberg, Adrian Muxworthy and Richard J. Harrison

      Article first published online: 10 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ggge.20141

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      Key Points

      • We present a review and calibration of non-heating paleointensity protocols
      • The recommended method of paleointensity determination is ARM normalization
      • The FORC method works well for SD states but fails for SV states
    6. Multistage collapse of eight western Canary Island landslides in the last 1.5 Ma: Sedimentological and geochemical evidence from subunits in submarine flow deposits (pages 2159–2181)

      J. E. Hunt, R. B. Wynn, P. J. Talling and D. G. Masson

      Article first published online: 15 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ggge.20138

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      Key Points

      • Multiple fining-upwards sequences in deposits signify multistage landslides
      • Subunits in El Golfo and Icod landslide deposits are correlated between basins
      • Last eight flank collapses in the Canary Islands have been multistage failures
    7. Interaction of microseisms with crustal heterogeneity: A case study from the San Jacinto fault zone area (pages 2182–2197)

      G. Hillers, Y. Ben-Zion, M. Landès and M. Campillo

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ggge.20140

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      Key Points

      • Microseism propagation interacts with the heterogeneous medium in the SJFZ area
      • Together with the nearby source this yields a scattered anisotropic wave field
      • Phase but not amplitude information can be inverted for physical properties
    8. Paleointensity results from the late-Archaean Modipe Gabbro of Botswana (pages 2198–2205)

      A. R. Muxworthy, M. E. Evans, S. J. Scourfield and J. G. King

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ggge.20142

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      Key Points

      • New Thellier paleointensity estimate for the Modipe Gabbro, late-Archaean
      • Application of new cooling-rate correction protocol
      • Very robust paleointensity estimate addition to the database
    9. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Active deformation in old oceanic lithosphere and significance for earthquake hazard: Seismic imaging of the Coral Patch Ridge area and neighboring abyssal plains (SW Iberian Margin) (pages 2206–2231)

      Sara Martínez-Loriente, Eulàlia Gràcia, Rafael Bartolome, Valentí Sallarès, Christopher Connors, Hector Perea, Claudio Lo Iacono, Dirk Klaeschen, Pedro Terrinha, Juan José Dañobeitia and Nevio Zitellini

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ggge.20173

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      Key Points

      • New active structures have been mapped in the Coral Patch Ridge area
      • The newly mapped faults are able to generate large magnitude earthquakes (Mw>7)
      • These new structures may represent a significant earthquake and tsunami hazard
    10. Magma flow between summit and Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō at K̄lauea Volcano, Hawai‘i (pages 2232–2246)

      C. P. Montagna and H. M. Gonnermann

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ggge.20145

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      Key Points

      • Propagation of pressure transients in elastic-walled dikes is non-linear
      • An elastic-walled dike model reproduces ground deformation patterns at Kilauea
      • Insights on the time-dependent transport properties of the east rift zone
    11. Influence of water on rheology and strain localization in the lower continental crust (pages 2247–2264)

      A. J. Getsinger, G. Hirth, H. Stünitz and E. T. Goergen

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ggge.20148

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      Key Points

      • Fluid and synkinematic reactions are important for strain localization
      • Strain localization correlates with an increase in amphibole
      • Deformation may be accommodated in highly localized zones of fluid infiltration
    12. Simplified mantle architecture and distribution of radiogenic power (pages 2265–2285)

      Ricardo Arevalo Jr., William F. McDonough, Andreas Stracke, Matthias Willbold, Thomas J. Ireland and Richard J. Walker

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ggge.20152

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      Key Points

      • The hotspot source of OIB is predicted to contain 160 +/- 20 (2sm) ng/g Th
      • The OIB source region constitutes 19 +3/-2 (2sm) % of the mantle by mass
      • The model OIB source described here generates 10 pW/kg, equal to 7.3 TW
    13. The 1874–1876 volcano-tectonic episode at Askja, North Iceland: Lateral flow revisited (pages 2286–2309)

      Margaret E. Hartley and Thor Thordarson

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ggge.20151

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      Key Points

      • We present new geochemical data for eruptions on the Askja volcanic system
      • Lateral flow is not required to explain fissure eruptions north of Askja in 1875
      • The Holuhraun lava is compositionally similar to Veidivotn basalts
    14. Dynamics of outer-rise faulting in oceanic-continental subduction systems (pages 2310–2327)

      John B. Naliboff, Magali I. Billen, Taras Gerya and Jessie Saunders

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ggge.20155

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      Key Points

      • Outer-rise faulting is sensitive to plate age, velocity and slab pull
      • Plate-boundary coupling strongly influences outer-rise stress state
      • Rheology has comparatively little influence on faulting patterns
    15. A low-relief shield volcano origin for the South Kaua‘i Swell (pages 2328–2348)

      Garrett Ito, Michael O. Garcia, John R. Smith, Brian Taylor, Ashton Flinders, Brian Jicha, Seiko Yamasaki, Dominique Weis, Lisa Swinnard and Chuck Blay

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ggge.20159

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      Key Points

      • Results of geophysical surveys and rock sampling of the S. Kauai Swell reported
      • Landslide is unlikely given its morphology, large size, and lack of source scar
      • Data are best explained by low-relief shield volcano
    16. Holocene evolution in weathering and erosion patterns in the Pearl River delta (pages 2349–2368)

      Dengke Hu, Peter D. Clift, Philipp Böning, Robyn Hannigan, Stephen Hillier, Jerzy Blusztajn, Shiming Wan and Dorian Q. Fuller

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ggge.20166

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      Key Points

      • First time multi-proxy weathering and erosion study in Holocene southern China
      • River system is now at highest disturbance not reflexive of natural conditions
      • Archaeology shows human settlement has majorly resulted in changes on landscape
    17. Observations of the volume flux of a seafloor hydrothermal plume using an acoustic imaging sonar (pages 2369–2382)

      G. Xu, D. R. Jackson, K. G. Bemis and P. A. Rona

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ggge.20177

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      Key Points

      • COVIS is capable of long-term, quantitative monitoring of a hydrothermal plume
      • Plume flow velocity and volume flux show significant temporal variations
      • Tidal flows affect the plume flow velocity via the current-driven entrainment
    18. Testing inverse kinematic models of paleocrustal thickness in extensional systems with high-resolution forward thermo-mechanical models (pages 2383–2398)

      Erik A. Kneller, Markus Albertz, Garry D. Karner and Christopher A. Johnson

      Article first published online: 30 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ggge.20153

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      Key Points

      • We test an inverse model of paleocrustal thickness
      • Inversions match the forward model
      • Aspects of shear zone geometry are predicted
    19. Structural and petrophysical characterization of the upper basement crustal section at ODP/IODP Site 1256 (East Pacific Ocean) (pages 2399–2431)

      Emanuele Fontana and Paola Tartarotti

      Article first published online: 30 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ggge.20161

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      Key Points

      • We deciphered the solidification rate scheme of a subseafloor lava body
      • We found the flowing direction of the off-axis lava flow at ODP Site 1256
      • We define the structural control on the physical properties at ODP Site 1256
    20. A combined vacuum crushing and sieving (CVCS) system designed to determine noble gas paleotemperatures from stalagmite samples (pages 2432–2444)

      Nadia Vogel, Matthias S. Brennwald, Dominik Fleitmann, Rainer Wieler, Colin Maden, Andreas Süsli and Rolf Kipfer

      Article first published online: 30 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ggge.20164

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      Key Points

      • Unique extraction device for noble gas temperature determination on speleothems
      • The new device overcomes experimental shortcomings of previous approaches
      • Noble gas temperatures allow reconstructing paleo-temperature evolutions
    21. Temporal variability of in situ methane concentrations in gas hydrate-bearing sediments near Bullseye Vent, Northern Cascadia Margin (pages 2445–2459)

      Laura Lapham, Rachel Wilson, Michael Riedel, Charles K. Paull and M. Elizabeth Holmes

      Article first published online: 30 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ggge.20167

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      Key Points

      • Pore-waters near the sediment-water interface were nearly saturated with methane
      • Methane concentrations in overlying water and pore-waters vary over time
      • No direct correlation between methane flux and earthquake activity was found
    22. Variability of internal frontal bore breaking above Opouawe Bank methane seep area (New Zealand) (pages 2460–2473)

      Hans van Haren and Jens Greinert

      Article first published online: 30 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ggge.20170

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      Key Points

      • High-resolution temeprature data reveal internal wave breaking
      • Variable bores break at a non-critical internal tide slope
      • Internal waves break at a known methane seep site, providing large mixing
    23. Mineralogical assemblages forming at hyperalkaline warm springs hosted on ultramafic rocks: A case study of Oman and Ligurian ophiolites (pages 2474–2495)

      Valérie Chavagnac, Georges Ceuleneer, Christophe Monnin, Benjamin Lansac, Guilhem Hoareau and Cédric Boulart

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ggge.20146

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      Key Points

      • Distinct mineralogical association between Oman and liguria alkaline springs
      • There is no Mg-bearing carbonate
      • similar mineral assemblage in marine and surface serpentinizing environment
    24. Characterization of hyperalkaline fluids produced by low-temperature serpentinization of mantle peridotites in the Oman and Ligurian ophiolites (pages 2496–2522)

      Valérie Chavagnac, Christophe Monnin, Georges Ceuleneer, Cédric Boulart and Guilhem Hoareau

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ggge.20147

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      Key Points

      • New temperature and composition of the alkaline waters
      • Brucite formation at pH 10.5 triggers major chemical and mineralogical changes
      • Relationship between the water compositions and the hydrologic pathways
    25. Relating sulfate and methane dynamics to geology: Accretionary prism offshore SW Taiwan (pages 2523–2545)

      Pei-Chuan Chuang, Andrew W. Dale, Klaus Wallmann, Matthias Haeckel, Tsanyao Frank Yang, Nai-Chen Chen, Hsiao-Chi Chen, Hsuan-Wen Chen, Saulwood Lin, Chih-Hsien Sun, Chen-Feng You, Chorng-Shern Horng, Yunshuen Wang and San-Hsiung Chung

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ggge.20168

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      Key Points

      • Diagenetic processes are quantified by a reaction-transport model
      • Data reveal irrigation of seawater by gas bubbles and AOM play important role
      • Geochemical trends are closely related to the different geological settings

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