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Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems

Cover image for Vol. 15 Issue 11

November 2014

Volume 15, Issue 11

Pages i–i, 4117–4587

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Articles
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      Issue Information (page i)

      Version of Record online: 15 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ggge.20327

  2. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Articles
    1. You have free access to this content
      Quantifying temporal variations in landslide-driven sediment production by reconstructing paleolandscapes using tephrochronology and lidar: Waipaoa River, New Zealand (pages 4117–4136)

      Corina Cerovski-Darriau, Joshua J. Roering, Michael Marden, Alan S. Palmer and Eric L. Bilderback

      Version of Record online: 7 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GC005467

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      Key Points

      • Landforms dated by tephra glass chemistry calibrate a roughness-age relationship
      • Post-LGM surfaces are reconstructed to calculate hillslope erosion through time
      • Hillslopes contribute significantly to the Waipaoa sedimentary system
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      Shallow methane hydrate system controls ongoing, downslope sediment transport in a low-velocity active submarine landslide complex, Hikurangi Margin, New Zealand (pages 4137–4156)

      Joshu J. Mountjoy, Ingo Pecher, Stuart Henrys, Gareth Crutchley, Philip M. Barnes and Andreia Plaza-Faverola

      Version of Record online: 7 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GC005379

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      Key Points

      • Low-velocity active landslides are proposed to occur on the seafloor
      • Gas hydrates provide a perturbation mechanism for ongoing landslide mobility
      • We propose an active, mixed hydrate-sediment seafloor glacier
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      Lucky Strike seamount: Implications for the emplacement and rifting of segment-centered volcanoes at slow spreading mid-ocean ridges (pages 4157–4179)

      J. Escartín, S. A. Soule, M. Cannat, D. J. Fornari, D. Düşünür and R. Garcia

      Version of Record online: 7 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GC005477

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      Key Points

      • Central volcanoes form by focused, high efussion rate eruptions
      • Axial graben forms as melt supply is reduced, bisecting the central volcano
      • Central volcanoes impart along-axis variations in mode of crustal accretion
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      Eruptive history and magmatic stability of Erebus volcano, Antarctica: Insights from englacial tephra (pages 4180–4202)

      Nels A. Iverson, Philip R. Kyle, Nelia W. Dunbar, William C. McIntosh and Nicholas J. G. Pearce

      Version of Record online: 10 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GC005435

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      Key Points

      • The Erebus magmatic systems has remained unchanged over the past ∼40 ka
      • The Erebus phonolite is one of the most chemically stable on the planet
      • Eruptions at Erebus can be phreatomagmatic, magmatic, or both
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      Deep water recycling through time (pages 4203–4216)

      Valentina Magni, Pierre Bouilhol and Jeroen van Hunen

      Version of Record online: 10 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GC005525

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      Key Points

      • Deep water recycling might be possible even in early Earth conditions
      • We provide a scaling law to estimate the amount of H2O flux deep into the mantle
      • Subduction velocity has a a major control on the crustal dehydration pattern
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      Incorporating 3-D parent nuclide zonation for apatite 4He/3He thermochronometry: An example from the Appalachian Mountains (pages 4217–4229)

      Matthew Fox, Ryan E. McKeon and David L. Shuster

      Version of Record online: 10 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GC005464

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      Key Points

      • New 4He/3He data are presented from the Appalachian Mountains
      • We present a 3-D He production-diffusion model for a single crystal
      • We resolve intracrystal variations in diffusivity due to radiation damage
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      Segmentation of plate coupling, fate of subduction fluids, and modes of arc magmatism in Cascadia, inferred from magnetotelluric resistivity (pages 4230–4253)

      Philip E. Wannamaker, Rob L. Evans, Paul A. Bedrosian, Martyn J. Unsworth, Virginie Maris and R. Shane McGary

      Version of Record online: 11 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GC005509

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      Key Points

      • Higher resistivity with increased coastal plate coupling implies lesser fluid
      • Low-resistivity fluid coincides with eclogitization and slow-slip earthquakes
      • Resistivity structure of arc melt source reflects slab inputs and state of stress
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      Spatial extent and degree of oxygen depletion in the deep proto-North Atlantic basin during Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (pages 4254–4266)

      Niels A. G. M. van Helmond, Itzel Ruvalcaba Baroni, Appy Sluijs, Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté and Caroline P. Slomp

      Version of Record online: 11 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GC005528

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      Key Points

      • The deep proto-North Atlantic was completely anoxic during OAE2
      • Redox proxies reveal spatial differences in bottom water redox conditions
      • Bottom water circulation in the basin was severely restricted
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      Continental breakup and UHP rock exhumation in action: GPS results from the Woodlark Rift, Papua New Guinea (pages 4267–4290)

      Laura M. Wallace, Susan Ellis, Tim Little, Paul Tregoning, Neville Palmer, Robert Rosa, Richard Stanaway, John Oa, Edwin Nidkombu and John Kwazi

      Version of Record online: 11 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GC005458

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      Key Points

      • GPS reveals crustal deformation and microplate kinematics in the Woodlark Basin, SE Papua New Guinea
      • Exhumation of UHP rocks in southeastern PNG is associated with active crustal extension
      • Our results demonstrate that low-angle normal faults can slip at rates of several mm/yr or more
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      The role of viscoelasticity in subducting plates (pages 4291–4304)

      R. J. Farrington, L.-N. Moresi and F. A. Capitanio

      Version of Record online: 24 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GC005507

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      Key Points

      • We study the effect of viscoelastic stresses on numerical subduction models
      • Hinge energy rates and apparent viscosity are quantified
      • Elastic slabs are less dissipative, energy is transferred within hinge region
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      Rayleigh wave phase velocities in the Atlantic upper mantle (pages 4305–4324)

      Esther K. James, Colleen A. Dalton and James B. Gaherty

      Version of Record online: 24 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GC005518

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      Key Points

      • Rayleigh wave phase-velocity models for the Atlantic upper mantle
      • Areas of low velocity associated with hotspot volcanism at all periods
      • Age-dependent phase velocities require thin lithosphere in Atlantic
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      Imaging of CO2 bubble plumes above an erupting submarine volcano, NW Rota-1, Mariana Arc (pages 4325–4342)

      William W. Chadwick Jr., Susan G. Merle, Nathaniel J. Buck, J. William Lavelle, Joseph A. Resing and Vicki Ferrini

      Version of Record online: 25 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GC005543

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      Key Points

      • CO2 bubble plumes were imaged by multibeam sonar at actively erupting NW Rota-1
      • The bubble plumes reflected the variable style and vigor of eruptive activity
      • The height and shape of the bubble plumes varied in concert with ocean currents
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      Curie temperatures of titanomagnetite in ignimbrites: Effects of emplacement temperatures, cooling rates, exsolution, and cation ordering (pages 4343–4368)

      Mike Jackson and Julie A. Bowles

      Version of Record online: 25 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GC005527

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      Key Points

      • Titanomagnetite Curie temperatures are strongly dependent on thermal history
      • Observations suggest time and temperature-dependent cation ordering
      • This has important implications in paleomagnetism and geospeedometry
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      Regional-scale input of dispersed and discrete volcanic ash to the Izu-Bonin and Mariana subduction zones (pages 4369–4379)

      Rachel P. Scudder, Richard W. Murray, Julie C. Schindlbeck, Steffen Kutterolf, Folkmar Hauff and Claire C. McKinley

      Version of Record online: 25 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GC005561

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      Key Points

      • Dispersed ash comprises ∼30–35% of the sedimentary input to the IBM subduction system
      • The sources and ash layer-to-dispersed ash relationships differ between sites
      • Changes in inputs with time indicate strong arc-related and climate-related controls
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      Segmentation and eruptive activity along the East Pacific Rise at 16°N, in relation with the nearby Mathematician hotspot (pages 4380–4399)

      M. Le Saout, A. Deschamps, S. A. Soule and P. Gente

      Version of Record online: 26 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GC005560

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      Key Points

      • EPR fine-scale segmentation revealed by high-resolution bathymetry
      • The Axial Summit Trough geometry reflects variations of the eruptive activity
      • The Mathematician hotspot strongly influences the spreading processes at 16°N
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      Rock magnetic properties and paleomagnetic behavior of Neogene marine sediments from northern Chile (pages 4400–4423)

      Claudio A. Tapia and Gary S. Wilson

      Version of Record online: 26 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GC005336

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      Key Points

      • Northern Chile, Neogene marine sediments have a detrital remanent magnetization
      • Natural remanent magnetization of marine sediments consist of three components
      • Magnetic remanence is carried mainly by detrital magnetite and titanomagnetite
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      Assessment of relative Ti, Ta, and Nb (TITAN) enrichments in ocean island basalts (pages 4424–4444)

      Bradley J. Peters and James M. D. Day

      Version of Record online: 28 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GC005506

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      Key Points

      • Relative TITAN excesses in OIB parental magmas show weak correlations to 3He/4He
      • Measured TITAN anomalies can be reproduced by models of partial melting and AFC
      • Ordering of elements on spider diagrams may need revision for phenocrystic OIB
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      Volatile cycling of H2O, CO2, F, and Cl in the HIMU mantle: A new window provided by melt inclusions from oceanic hot spot lavas at Mangaia, Cook Islands (pages 4445–4467)

      Rita A. Cabral, Matthew G. Jackson, Kenneth T. Koga, Estelle F. Rose-Koga, Erik H. Hauri, Martin J. Whitehouse, Allison A. Price, James M. D. Day, Nobumichi Shimizu and Katherine A. Kelley

      Version of Record online: 28 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GC005473

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      Key Points

      • Volatile element concentrations have never been reported on HIMU end-member lavas
      • Lavas from Mangaia represent melts of the HIMU mantle end-member
      • We provide volatile and trace element concentrations on Mangaia melt inclusions
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      Apparent timing and duration of the Matuyama-Brunhes geomagnetic reversal in Chinese loess (pages 4468–4480)

      Hui Zhao, Xiaoke Qiang and Youbin Sun

      Version of Record online: 28 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GC005497

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      Key Points

      • Paleomagnetic results of the MBT in four loess sequences are synchronized
      • Timing of the MBT in Chinese loess is estimated to be around 808–826 ka
      • The MBT is older and longer in Chinese loess than in marine records
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      Understanding which parameters control shallow ascent of silicic effusive magma (pages 4481–4506)

      Mark E. Thomas and Jurgen W. Neuberg

      Version of Record online: 28 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GC005529

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      Key Points

      • Simulation of parameters controlling magma ascent
      • Magmatic water content dominates ascent rate
      • Changes in seismicity rates may indicate changes in volcanic activity
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      The role of elasticity in slab bending (pages 4507–4525)

      Loic Fourel, Saskia Goes and Gabriele Morra

      Version of Record online: 28 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GC005535

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      Key Points:

      • Derivation of a scaling law between viscoelastic slabs geometry and rheology
      • Elastically stored energy favors retreating modes via unbending
      • Contribution of elasticity may facilitate rupture in larger earthquakes
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      Anthropophile elements in river sediments: Overview from the Seine River, France (pages 4526–4546)

      Jiu-Bin Chen, Jérôme Gaillardet, Julien Bouchez, Pascale Louvat and Yi-Na Wang

      Version of Record online: 28 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GC005516

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      Key Points

      • Enrichment/depletion patterns of elements depend on the hydrodynamics
      • Significant enrichments of anthropophile elements at low water stage
      • Riverbank deposits have different geochemistry from suspended sediments
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      Microstructures, composition, and seismic properties of the Ontong Java Plateau mantle root (pages 4547–4569)

      Andréa Tommasi and Akira Ishikawa

      Version of Record online: 28 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GC005452

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      Key Points

      • Complete sampling of the Ontong Java mantle root from 56 to 120 km depth
      • Calculated velocities inconsistent with low velocities imaged seismologically
      • Change in anisotropy may produce an intralithospheric reflector
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      Large-scale mechanical buckle fold development and the initiation of tensile fractures (pages 4570–4587)

      Andreas Eckert, Peter Connolly and Xiaolong Liu

      Version of Record online: 28 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GC005502

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      Key Points

      • Single-layer buckle folds are simulated under realistic stress conditions
      • Permeability and overburden thickness are key parameters in the development of tensile stresses
      • Tensile stresses in buckle folds are the result of a combination of horizontal compression and erosional unloading

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