Middle Tremadocian cephalopods from the Sierra de Mojotoro, Cordillera Oriental, NW Argentina, are assigned to Saloceras cf. sericeum (Salter) based on the siphuncle morphology and general shape of the conch. Saloceras sericeum (Salter) is known from the Upper Tremadocian and Floian of England and Wales, a region that formed part of eastern Avalonia during the Early Ordovician, located at a high southern latitude to the north of the Gondwanan margin. This is the oldest record of this genus and of the family Eothinoceratidae, and extends the geographical range of Saloceras, being the first positive record of its presence in Argentina and the Central Andean Basin. These remains are amongst the oldest cephalopods described from NW Argentina. They represent the third mid Tremadocian record of nautiloids at relatively high palaeolatitudes and away from the low latitude carbonate platform palaeoenvironments where the bulk of the earliest cephalopods resided. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.