The identity of the British Ordovician cystoid ‘Hemicosmites rugatus Forbes‘



New articulated specimens of the British Ordovician cystoid first mentioned under the name ‘Hemicosmites rugatus Forbes’ in 1848 allow its morphology and systematic affinities to be established for the first time. Despite being based on isolated plates, ‘H. rugatus Forbes’ has been reported from England and Wales, Belgium, France, Spain and Thailand, and has been attributed to four genera. It is characterized by a heteromorphic, circular stem, a theca with four basal, six infra-lateral and eight lateral plates, all with sharp-crested ridges running to plate angles, multiple arms in each ambulacrum and an extensive tegmen. These characters indicate it belongs in the family Caryocrinitidae and genus Caryocrinites. Caryocrinites rugatus had arms with lateral brachioles that folded in against the main arm axis, as in the type species C. ornatus Say. It is the first Ordovician species known to possess this character. Isolated plates show sorting and a few may represent other species of Caryocrinites s.l. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.