SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

Keywords:

  • U–Pb geochronology;
  • Sr–Nd–Hf isotopes;
  • granitoids;
  • petrogenesis;
  • Great Xing′an Range;
  • Lesser Xing′an Range;
  • NE China

Abstract

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. 1 Introduction
  4. 2 Geological Setting
  5. 3 Petrography
  6. 4 Analytical Methods
  7. 5 Results
  8. 6 Discussion
  9. 7 Conclusions
  10. Acknowledgements
  11. References
  12. Supporting Information

The Great Xing′an and Lesser Xing′an ranges are characterized by immense volumes of Mesozoic granitoids. In this study, we present major and trace element geochemistry, U–Pb geochronology and systematic Sr–Nd–Hf isotopes for the representative samples, in order to constrain their petrogenesis and the tectonic evolution in NE China. The granitoids generally have high SiO2 (66.5–78.8 wt.%) and Na2O + K2O (7.0–8.9 wt.%) contents and belong to high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic series. All of them show enrichment in Rb, Th, U, Pb and light rare earth elements (LREE), and depletion in Nb, Ta, P and Ti. Zircon U–Pb dating suggests that there was continuous magmatism in both the Great Xing′an Range and the Lesser Xing′an Range during the Jurassic–Early Cretaceous interval. Seven Jurassic granitoids have (87Sr/86Sr)i values of 0.704351 to 0.707374, with ϵNd(t) values of −3.4 to 2.4 and ϵHf(t) values of 0.8 to 11.3, indicating that they originated from mixed sources involving depleted mantle and pre-existing crustal components. One Early Cretaceous sample yields (87Sr/86Sr)i value of 0.706184, ϵNd(t) value of 0.6, and ϵHf(t) values of 7.0 to 8.2, which is in accordance with previous studies and indicates a major juvenile mantle source for the granitoids in this period. In the Jurassic, the magmatism in the Great Xing′an Range was induced by the subduction of the Mongol–Okhotsk Ocean, while the contemporaneous magmatism in the Lesser Xing′an Range was related to the subduction of the Palaeo-Pacific Ocean. In the Early Cretaceous, extensive magmatism in NE China was probably attributed to large-scale lithospheric delamination. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

1 Introduction

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. 1 Introduction
  4. 2 Geological Setting
  5. 3 Petrography
  6. 4 Analytical Methods
  7. 5 Results
  8. 6 Discussion
  9. 7 Conclusions
  10. Acknowledgements
  11. References
  12. Supporting Information

Granitic intrusions are widely distributed in northeastern China, especially in the Great Xing′an, Lesser Xing′an and Zhangguangcai ranges (Wu et al., 2000, 2002, 2007; Liu et al., 2009; Zhang et al., 2012). Most of them were emplaced during the late Palaeozoic and Mesozoic (Wu et al., 2011; Zhang et al., 2012; Xu et al., 2013). The Mesozoic granitoids, as developed in a superimposed tectonic setting involving the evolution of the Mongol–Okhotsk and Palaeo-Pacific oceans, provide a valuable opportunity in deciphering crustal growth and geodynamic evolution in this region. In recent years, there have been a number of geochronological and geochemical studies of the Mesozoic granitoids in NE China (Jahn et al., 2000a,2000b, 2001, 2004; Wu et al., 2002, 2003, 2005, 2011; Yang et al., 2011; S.R. Li et al., 2013; Santosh and Somerville, 2013; Yang et al., 2014). These studies suggest that the Mesozoic granitoids dominantly formed during the Jurassic and the Early Cretaceous, and most of them are characterized by high ϵNd(t) and low (87Sr/86Sr)i values, indicating significant continental crustal growth. Nonetheless, the petrogenesis of these granitoids remains controversial, particularly with regard to their origins and tectonic setting (Lin et al., 2004; Liu et al., 2009; Wu et al., 2011).

Since these granitoids often develop within volcanic–intrusive complexes and share similar geochemical characteristics with the Mesozoic rhyolites, they are considered to have originated from the same sources as the contemporaneous volcanic rocks (Lin et al., 2004; Liu et al., 2004). Some researchers correlate these plutonic and volcanic rocks with the subduction of the Mongol–Okhotsk Ocean and post-collisional processes (Shao et al., 1994; Meng, 2003), while others prefer that they resulted from subduction of the Palaeo-Pacific Ocean and the subsequent lithospheric delamination (Hilde et al., 1977; Ge et al., 2007; Sun et al., 2013); still a few researchers insist on a mantle plume model (Deng et al., 1996). In summary, controversies persist mainly due to the lack of precise dating and systematic isotopic constraints on these granitoids. In this paper, we present newly acquired zircon U–Pb ages together with whole-rock geochemical and Sr–Nd–Hf isotopic data on the Mesozoic granitoids from the Great Xing′an Range (GXR) and the Lesser Xing′an Range (LXR), with an aim to characterize their petrogenesis and the tectonic evolution of NE China.

2 Geological Setting

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. 1 Introduction
  4. 2 Geological Setting
  5. 3 Petrography
  6. 4 Analytical Methods
  7. 5 Results
  8. 6 Discussion
  9. 7 Conclusions
  10. Acknowledgements
  11. References
  12. Supporting Information

The GXR and LXR are located in NE China, within the eastern segment of the Xing′an–Mongolian Orogenic Belt. In a broader context, the study area belongs to the eastern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) (Şengör and Natal'in, 1996; Jahn et al., 2000a, 2000b, 2001; Wu et al., 2000, 2001, 2002; Xiao and Santosh, 2014; Fig. 1), which evolved from the amalgamation of different microcontinental blocks between the Siberian Craton in the north and the North China Craton in the south (Windley et al., 2007; Jahn et al., 2009; Glorie et al., 2011; Zhai and Santosh, 2011, 2013; D. Li et al., 2013). According to previous studies, the evolution of NE China was governed by three successive tectonic regimes: (1) closure of the Palaeo-Asian Ocean in the Palaeozoic; (2) closure of the Mongol–Okhotsk Ocean in the late Palaeozoic–Mesozoic; and (3) subduction of the western Pacific Plate in the Mesozoic–Cenozoic (Wang and Mo, 1995; Wu et al., 2001; S. Q. Li et al., 2012; Zhang et al., 2012; Santosh and Somerville, 2013; Goldfarb and Santosh, 2014). As a result, a series of E-, NE- and NNE-trending discordogenic faults were triggered during various evolution stages, providing the passage for the volcanism, magmatism and ore deposition in this area (Liu et al., 2004; Chen et al., 2012; Zhao et al., 2013).

image

Figure 1. Simplified geological map of NE China showing the distribution of Mesozoic granitoids and sampling location (modified after Wu et al., 2000, 2007; Chen et al., 2012; N. Li et al., 2012). ① Erguna Block, ② Great Xing′an Range, ③ Lesser Xing′an Range, ④ Songliao Basin, ⑤ Zhangguangcai Range, ⑥ Jiamusi Block, ⑦ North China Craton. This figure is available in colour online at wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/gj

Download figure to PowerPoint

NE China can be divided, from northwest to southeast, into the Erguna Block, Xing′an Block, Songnen Block and Jiamusi Block, separated by the Derbugan Fault, Nenjiang Fault and Mudanjiang Fault, respectively (Liu et al., 2004; Zhou et al., 2010a; Yang et al., 2012). The Xing′an Block consists of the GXR and the Halar Basin, and the Songnen Block comprises the Songliao Basin, the Zhangguangcai Range and LXR (Fig. 1). It has been suggested that the Erguna Block was accreted to the Xing′an Block during the early Palaeozoic, and the assemblage between the Xing′an and Songnen blocks took place before the Permian (Ge et al., 2005; Wang et al., 2008; Wu et al., 2011; Gou et al., 2013). However, the timing of collision between the Jiamusi and Songnen Blocks is still controversial, and different authors invoke the early Palaeozoic (Cao et al., 1992; Zhang, 1992; Liu et al., 2010) or, alternatively, the Mesozoic (Liu et al., 2004; Wu et al., 2007, 2011; Zhou et al., 2009, 2010b; Wilde et al., 2010).

In NE China, the Precambrian metamorphic basement mainly crops out in the Erguna Block, the Jiamusi Block, and the northern part of the Xing′an Block (Fig. 1). It consists dominantly of amphibolite to greenschist facies metamorphic rocks. In recent years, some of these metamorphic rocks are recognized to have evolved from the early Palaeozoic protoliths (Wilde et al., 2000, 2001; Miao et al., 2004, 2007; Zhou et al., 2010c), suggesting that the early Palaeozoic rocks may also constitute part of the metamorphic basement. The Palaeozoic strata are composed of a series of submarine volcanic sedimentary rocks, including a small amount of early Palaeozoic limestones, as well as the widely distributed late Palaeozoic clastic sediments (X.Z. Zhang et al., 2008, 2012; Wu et al., 2011). In comparison, the Mesozoic strata are dominated by extensive continental volcanic rocks, which extend as a NNE-trending belt in GXR (Zhao et al., 1989; Lin et al., 1999; Fan et al., 2003). These volcanic rocks were mostly generated during the Late Jurassic–Early Cretaceous interval (Wang et al., 2006; Ying et al., 2010; Zhang et al., 2010; Li and Santosh, 2014) and comprise mainly rhyolites, dacites, andesites and tuffs, with a lesser amount of basalts (Ge et al., 1999; Guo et al., 2001; L.C. Zhang et al., 2008).

Phanerozoic granitoids are extensively distributed in NE China. Most of them were considered to be emplaced during the late Palaeozoic and Mesozoic. However, according to zircon U–Pb dating provided by several recent studies (e.g., Wu et al., 2000, 2011), some of the previous late Palaeozoic granitoids were proved to be actually generated in the Mesozoic. The Mesozoic granitoids, which are especially widely distributed in the GXR, LXR and the Zhangguangcai Range, dominantly occur in the form of batholiths and stocks (Liu et al., 2011; Bai et al., 2012; Chen et al., 2012). They comprise mainly I-type and A-type granites, while S-type granites are rarely discovered in this region (Wu et al., 2000, 2002). According to their geochemical compositions, these granitoids vary from peralkaline, metaluminous to peraluminous (Wu et al., 2011).

3 Petrography

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. 1 Introduction
  4. 2 Geological Setting
  5. 3 Petrography
  6. 4 Analytical Methods
  7. 5 Results
  8. 6 Discussion
  9. 7 Conclusions
  10. Acknowledgements
  11. References
  12. Supporting Information

The samples analysed in this study were collected from different mining districts, which are some of the few places where exposed granite samples can be obtained. Our survey includes three granitoids from the Chalukou, Daheishan and Sankuanggou deposits in GXR, and five granitoids from the Cuihongshan, Dongan, Tuanjiegou, Luming and Xulaojiugou deposits in LXR. The positions of these granitoids are marked in Figure 1. The hand specimens and representative photomicrographs of the analysed samples are presented in Figure 2a–p.

image

Figure 2. Hand specimens (a–h) and photomicrographs (i–p) of the analysed granitoids. (a) Sample CLK-011, biotite monzogranite; (b) Sample DHS-0151, granodiorite; (c) Sample SKG-081, granodiorite; (d) Sample CHS-021, syenogranite; (e) Sample DA-063, alkali-feldspar granite; (f) Sample TJG-021, plagiogranite porphyry; (g) Sample LM-0101, monzogranite; (h) Sample XLJG-011, monzogranite; (i) Sample CLK-011; (j) Sample DHS-0151; (k) Sample SKG-081; (l) Sample CHS-021; (m) Sample DA-063; (n) Sample TJG-021; (o) Sample LM-0101; (p) Sample XLJG-011. Mineral abbreviations: Qtz: quartz; Kfs: K-feldspar; Pl: plagioclase; Bi: biotite. This figure is available in colour online at wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/gj

Download figure to PowerPoint

The biotite monzogranite in the Chalukou deposit is medium- to coarse-grained and is mainly composed of K-feldspar (~35 vol.%), quartz (~30 vol.%), plagioclase (~25 vol.%) and biotite (~8 vol.%) (Fig. 2a and i), with accessory apatite, titanite and zircon. The K-feldspars and quartz grains are generally irregular. The plagioclases are subhedral–anhedral with polysynthetic twinning.

The granodiorite in the Daheishan deposit is medium-grained and is composed dominantly of plagioclase (~35 vol.%), quartz (~25 vol.%), K-feldspar (~20 vol.%) and biotite (~10 vol.%) (Fig. 2b and j), with sporadic hornblende, apatite and magnetite. The plagioclases are mostly subhedral, while the quartz grains, K-feldspars and biotites are generally irregular.

The granodiorite in the Sankuanggou deposit is medium- to coarse-grained and contains quartz (~40 vol.%), plagioclase (~30 vol.%), K-feldspar (~20 vol.%) and biotite (~8 vol.%) (Fig. 2c and k), with minor titanite and apatite. Quartz and plagioclase are anhedral–subhedral. K-feldspar is irregular and locally altered to sericite. Biotite is platy and subhedral–anhedral.

The syenogranite in the Cuihongshan deposit is fine-grained and consists of K-feldspar (~45 vol.%), quartz (~30 vol.%), plagioclase (~15 vol.%) and biotite (~5 vol.%) (Fig. 2d and l), with accessory apatite and zircon. The K-feldspars are platy and dominated by orthoclase and microcline. Quartz, plagioclase and biotite are mostly subhedral–anhedral.

The alkali-feldspar granite in the Dongan deposit is fine-grained and is composed mainly of K-feldspar (~65 vol.%), quartz (~25 vol.%) and plagioclase (~5 vol.%) (Fig. 2e and m), with accessory apatite, zircon and magnetite. The K-feldspars are subhedral–anhedral and dominated by microcline and perthite. The quartz and plagioclase are irregular.

The plagiogranite porphyry in the Tuanjiegou deposit is composed mainly of plagioclase (~60 vol.%) and quartz (~25 vol.%) with subordinate K-feldspar (~10 vol.%) (Fig. 2f and n) and accessory apatite, magnetite, sericite and epidote. The phenocrysts are dominated by plagioclase and quartz, some of which are traversed by secondary calcite veinlets. The matrix is composed of plagioclase, quartz, K-feldspar and accessory minerals.

The monzogranites in the Luming (Fig. 2g and o) and Xulaojiugou (Fig. 2h and p) deposits share similar textures and mineral compositions. They are medium-grained and are dominated by plagioclase (35–40 vol.%), K-feldspar (30–35 vol.%), quartz (~25 vol.%), and biotite (5–10 vol.%). The accessory minerals are apatite, magnetite and titanite. Plagioclase and biotite are mostly euhedral–subhedral, while K-feldspar and quartz are irregular.

4 Analytical Methods

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. 1 Introduction
  4. 2 Geological Setting
  5. 3 Petrography
  6. 4 Analytical Methods
  7. 5 Results
  8. 6 Discussion
  9. 7 Conclusions
  10. Acknowledgements
  11. References
  12. Supporting Information

Granite samples were prepared in different groups for geochemical and Sr–Nd isotopic analyses and zircon separation. Major element compositions of whole-rock were determined by X-ray fluorescence spectroscope (XRF) (Magix_pro2440) techniques at Hubei Geological Research Laboratory, China. Trace element determinations were performed using an Agilent-7500a inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP–MS) at State Key Laboratory of Geological Process and Mineral Resources, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan. Details of the analytical procedures have been described by Liu et al. (2008a). The analytical accuracy is generally better than 5% for major elements and 10% for trace and rare earth elements.

Zircons were separated using conventional heavy-liquid and magnetic separation techniques. Individual crystals of zircon from each sample were handpicked under a binocular microscope. The zircons were subsequently mounted in epoxy resin and polished to about half of their thickness. Cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging was then carried out using a Gatan Mono CL3+ cathode fluorescence spectroscopy at the State Key Laboratory of Continental Dynamics, Northwest University, China, in order to examine the internal structures of individual zircon grains and select suitable sites for U–Pb and Lu–Hf analyses. Zircon U–Pb analyses were conducted on a laser ablation inductively coupled plasma spectrometry (LA–ICP–MS) at the State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan. An Agilent 7500a ICP–MS attached to A GeoLas 2005 laser ablation system was used for the experiments. The laser spot size was 32 µm. The laser energy and frequency were 8 Hz and 70 mJ. Zircon 91500 was analysed as external standard to calibrate the accuracy of 207Pb/206Pb, 207Pb/235U 206Pb/238U ratios. More details of the operating conditions and parameters are given in Liu et al. (2008b). U–Pb isotopic ratios were calculated using ICPMSDataCal, and the concordia diagrams were processed using Isoplot (ver 3.0) (Ludwig, 2003).

Hf isotopic analyses were subsequently conducted using a Neptune Plus MC–ICP–MS equipped with a Geolas 2005 excimer ArF laser ablation system at the State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan. A laser ablation size of 44 µm and a laser repetition of 10 Hz were used during analyses. The 176Yb/173Yb value of 0.79381 (Segal et al., 2003) and the 73Yb isotope obtained during Hf analysis were applied for the interference correction of 176Yb on 176Hf. Analogously, the 176Lu/175Lu value of 0.02656 (Blichert-Toft et al., 1997) and the measured intensity of 175Lu isotope were used for interference correction of 176Lu on 176Hf. The detailed analytical technique followed those described in Hu et al. (2012a, 2012b).

Sr–Nd isotopic analyses were carried out at Beijing Research Institute of Uranium Geology, China. Whole-rock powder was spiked with mixed isotopic tracers and then dissolved with distilled HF + HNO3 + HClO4 in Teflon bombs. Rb, Sr, Sm and Nd were eluted using conventional cation resin exchange techniques, and the isotopic analyses were conducted using a ISOPROBE-T thermal ionization mass spectrometer. Detailed descriptions for sample preparation and analytical procedures can be found in Ni et al. (2009). The Sr and Nd isotopic ratios were normalized to 86Sr/88Sr = 0.1194 and 146Nd/144Nd = 0.7219, respectively. The measured NBS 987 Sr standard yields an 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.710250 ± 0.000008, while the SHINESTU Nd standard yields 143Nd/144Nd ratio of 0.512078 ± 0.000006.

5 Results

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. 1 Introduction
  4. 2 Geological Setting
  5. 3 Petrography
  6. 4 Analytical Methods
  7. 5 Results
  8. 6 Discussion
  9. 7 Conclusions
  10. Acknowledgements
  11. References
  12. Supporting Information

5.1 Major and trace elements

Major and trace element compositions of the analysed granitoids are listed in Table 1. The granitoids in GXR have SiO2 contents of 66.5 to 70.5 wt.%, with Na2O + K2O contents of 7.0 to 8.5 wt.% and Al2O3 contents of 14.9 to 15.9 wt.%. The granitoids in LXR display relatively higher SiO2 contents of 67.5 to 78.8 wt.%, with Na2O + K2O contents of 7.4 to 8.9 wt.% and Al2O3 contents of 11.1 to 15.7 wt.%. In the K2O versus SiO2 diagram (Fig. 3a), the granitoids in GXR fall within the field of high-K calc-alkaline, whereas the granitoids in LXR plot in both the shoshonitic field and the high-K calc-alkaline field. The A/CNK (molar A12O3/[CaO + Na2O + K2O]) values of the granitoids in GXR and LXR vary from 0.99 to 1.06 and from 0.89 to 1.20, respectively, classifying them as metaluminous to peraluminous (Fig. 3b).

Table 1. Major oxides (wt.%) and trace elements (ppm) of the Mesozoic granitoids in GXR and LXR
Mining districtChalukou (GXR)Daheishan (GXR)Sankuanggou (GXR)Cuihongshan (LXR)Dongan (LXR)
Rock typeBiotite monzograniteGranodioriteGranodioriteSyenograniteAlkali-feldspar granite
Sample no.CLK-011CLK-013DHS-0151DHS-0153SKG-081SKG-083CHS-021CHS-023DA-063
Na2O4.904.883.893.734.334.184.394.423.12
MgO0.730.730.950.971.651.680.560.560.21
Al2O315.1515.0914.9315.115.8815.7314.6514.6411.14
SiO270.3070.4869.8970.0666.4566.8470.7070.5978.84
P2O50.110.100.190.170.170.170.080.090.03
K2O3.513.424.564.342.882.854.444.484.25
CaO1.421.391.891.963.173.141.631.620.24
TiO20.410.400.550.590.500.530.340.330.17
MnO0.040.040.010.010.050.050.080.080.02
Fe2O31.001.010.90.72.071.830.600.510.66
FeO0.980.981.081.121.751.981.881.950.48
LOI1.031.011.141.120.780.710.280.310.74
Total99.5899.5399.9899.8799.6899.6999.6399.5899.90
Na2O + K2O8.418.308.458.077.217.038.838.907.37
K2O/Na2O0.720.701.171.160.670.681.011.011.36
A/NK1.281.291.321.391.551.581.221.211.14
A/CNK1.051.061.011.050.991.000.980.971.09
Li47.047.123.223.223.223.028.53.7513.3
Be2.682.602.282.291.781.773.5414.42.32
Sc2.592.694.684.527.677.964.262.023.61
V26.426.148.548.773.674.314.82.5016.3
Cr7.868.119.129.7511.212.02.381.791.51
Co32.543.232.138.146.181.521.240.150.7
Ni5.235.624.344.256.747.461.081.741.93
Cu7.076.97118411931741903.9215.37.33
Zn51.851.021.122.328630372.570478.4
Ga19.519.117.717.617.417.818.918.516.6
Rb81.079.610210173.370.5170587193
Sr880845689684472465167169113
Y7.797.868.298.3714.618.135.910211.7
Zr152141131153140160285128191
Nb9.409.375.15.256.608.2613.750.013.5
Mo0.160.141362480.600.702.259550.66
Sn1.661.662.792.91.441.732.4091.01.68
Cs2.592.295.35.363.243.024.073.885.01
Ba1046977785774550542697506497
La27.628.426.42622.624.445.173.638.2
Ce50.651.052.952.446.852.988.415263.4
Pr5.635.626.256.095.356.159.6015.75.66
Nd20.320.224.323.519.723.434.048.616.8
Sm3.103.083.974.163.614.296.229.692.46
Eu0.770.801.0710.931.041.020.170.45
Gd1.992.012.582.552.913.555.228.161.81
Tb0.270.280.330.340.420.520.871.620.26
Dy1.421.381.61.72.513.025.5011.41.65
Ho0.260.250.280.270.470.571.142.450.33
Er0.720.690.710.711.291.663.458.501.09
Tm0.110.100.110.10.220.260.521.570.19
Yb0.750.710.660.651.371.733.7111.91.43
Lu0.110.110.0980.0980.210.260.611.910.26
Hf3.933.663.514.053.714.277.446.125.76
Ta0.860.940.420.410.620.761.175.451.22
Tl0.470.450.710.670.400.381.165.881.24
Pb22.421.91616.58.768.9028.113019.0
Th5.998.025.045.538.098.4918.769.236.4
U1.071.441.671.852.232.585.9541.04.62
LREE10810911511399112184299127
HREE1313151524305715019
∑REE121122130128123142241449146
(La/Yb)N24.827.027.127.1211.19.58.24.218.0
Eu/Eu*0.890.920.960.870.850.790.530.060.62
Mining districtTuanjiegou (LXR)Luming (LXR)Xulaojiugou (LXR)
Rock typePlagiogranite porphyryMonzograniteMonzogranite
Sample no.TJG-021TJG-023LM-0101LM-0181LM-0182LM-0201LM-0202XLJG-011XLJG-021XLJG-022
Na2O3.063.103.072.702.732.632.513.204.784.42
MgO0.800.791.120.810.820.790.811.120.730.72
Al2O315.6815.5413.8813.8213.7213.2913.4714.6115.2815.53
SiO267.5368.0171.1272.4972.4773.0772.8070.2169.0869.32
P2O50.120.130.100.080.070.070.060.100.130.14
K2O4.394.404.805.825.905.535.584.713.343.17
CaO1.821.761.961.371.441.641.602.103.173.23
TiO20.440.440.450.360.350.330.330.460.360.42
MnO0.040.040.020.010.010.010.020.010.050.05
Fe2O30.590.540.530.600.770.230.510.590.760.65
FeO1.521.551.921.221.051.551.381.951.421.48
LOI3.613.400.870.790.750.750.880.880.360.37
Total99.6099.7099.84100.07100.0899.8999.9599.9499.4699.50
Na2O + K2O7.457.507.878.528.638.168.097.918.127.59
K2O/Na2O1.431.421.562.162.162.102.221.470.700.72
A/NK1.601.571.351.281.261.291.321.411.331.45
A/CNK1.201.191.001.041.021.001.031.030.890.94
Li10.39.9810.99.9910.69.519.977.7940.141.2
Be2.162.062.872.172.112.542.423.252.752.87
Sc5.865.856.044.904.704.754.876.632.933.14
V43.243.338.832.431.527.028.041.924.825.6
Cr28.827.26.895.056.114.735.407.132.502.62
Co36.330.051.447.242.544.232.360.652.134.7
Ni19.217.74.076.656.792.823.044.111.681.60
Cu17.015.52123293321841732378.919.57
Zn43.843.127.153.252.520.922.727.853.356.7
Ga19.318.916.815.615.215.815.116.921.021.2
Rb139134166162163153153163127128
Sr389385231251250222212250567560
Y9.019.4926.021.621.021.821.526.97.789.10
Zr135126161156154160144196147157
Nb7.347.0412.08.298.1610.410.512.36.417.55
Mo0.790.6988.313114914417415.13.021.42
Sn1.741.693.352.322.212.702.843.241.621.35
Cs6.726.473.292.272.222.352.293.132.822.88
Ba772752556657643499522573474480
La17.617.938.146.247.446.542.933.021.628.9
Ce36.036.775.886.888.987.582.166.638.049.4
Pr3.963.988.189.159.429.208.577.374.095.16
Nd15.115.528.131.231.429.928.326.014.918.8
Sm3.072.955.135.225.505.004.905.102.553.09
Eu0.750.790.750.850.880.670.720.780.730.84
Gd2.282.334.213.944.083.753.714.201.912.23
Tb0.330.340.690.630.630.600.600.710.250.31
Dy1.701.794.323.643.683.483.484.161.361.66
Ho0.310.310.860.710.710.720.710.870.250.29
Er0.860.852.582.042.022.222.142.590.690.79
Tm0.120.120.410.310.290.350.340.420.100.12
Yb0.680.802.772.032.082.452.272.910.730.91
Lu0.120.120.440.310.320.370.360.440.120.14
Hf3.593.414.874.604.495.064.556.083.844.16
Ta0.630.591.280.840.800.990.991.420.590.68
Tl1.111.031.081.041.021.141.101.120.740.78
Pb19.218.711.711.813.011.511.911.320.720.5
Th6.066.1521.114.013.620.317.920.311.312.7
U2.252.237.918.197.886.606.138.665.596.48
LREE767815617918417916813982106
HREE15164235353635431316
∑REE929419821521821420318295122
(La/Yb)N17.615.09.315.415.412.812.77.620.021.4
Eu/Eu*0.830.890.480.550.540.460.490.500.970.94
image

Figure 3. (a) K2O vs SiO2 and (b) A/NK [molar ratio Al2O3/(Na2O + K2O)] vs A/CNK [molar ratio Al2O3/(CaO + Na2O + K2O)] diagrams of the Mesozoic granitoids in GXR and LXR. (a) is from Rickwood (1989).

Download figure to PowerPoint

Granitoids from GXR and LXR generally display light rare earth element (LREE) enrichment, with (La/Yb)N ratios of 9.5 to 27.1 and 4.2 to 21.4, respectively. The compositions of the total rare earth elements (ΣREEs) for granitoids in GXR and LXR are 121 to 142 and 92 to 449 ppm, respectively. The granitoids in LXR show relatively stronger Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.06–0.97) than the granitoids in GXR (Eu/Eu* = 0.79–0.96) (Fig. 4a and b). All the analysed granitoids are enriched in Rb, Th, U and Pb and depleted in Nb, Ta, P and Ti. Nonetheless, the granitoids in LXR are relatively depleted in Ba compared with the granitoids in GXR (Fig. 4c and d).

image

Figure 4. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of the Mesozoic granitoids in GXR (a) and LXR (b). Primitive Mantle (PM) -normalized trace element diagrams of the Mesozoic granitoids in GXR (c) and LXR (d). The chondrite and PM values are from Sun and McDonough (1989).

Download figure to PowerPoint

5.2 Zircon U–Pb ages

The CL images of representative zircon grains are shown in Figure 5. The U–Pb dating results of zircons are summarized in Table S1 and presented graphically in Figure 6. These results include 206Pb/238U ages of three samples from GXR (CLK-011, DHS-0151, SKG-081) and five samples from LXR (CHS-021, DA-063, TJG-021, LM-0101, XLJG-011), based on a total of 139 individual zircon analyses.

image

Figure 5. Representative cathodoluminescence (CL) images of zircons from the Mesozoic granitoids in GXR and LXR. Small yellow circles indicate the positions for U–Pb dating, while large red circles indicate the Hf isotope analysis positions. This figure is available in colour online at wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/gj

Download figure to PowerPoint

image

Figure 6. Zircon U–Pb concordant diagrams for the Mesozoic granitoids in GXR (a–c) and LXR (d–h).

Download figure to PowerPoint

5.2.1 Granitoids in the GXR

Zircon grains in Sample CLK-011 (biotite monzogranite) are euhedral–subhedral, transparent to light maroon in colour, with lengths of 80 to 200 µm and length/width ratios of 1 to 2/1. The zircons generally display typical rhythmic oscillatory zoning in CL images (Fig. 5), with high Th/U ratios of 0.42 to 1.32, which are indicative of a magmatic origin. Nineteen analyses form a concordant cluster with a mean 206Pb/238U age of 163 ± 1 Ma (Fig. 6a), which is in accordance with the recently published zircon U–Pb data (162 ± 2 Ma, Liu et al., 2014).

Zircon grains in Sample DHS-0151 (granodiorite) are mostly euhedral, colourless and transparent, with lengths of 80 to 160 µm and length/width ratios of 1–2/1. The apparent oscillatory zoning in CL images (Fig. 5), combined with the high Th/U ratios (0.56–1.15), indicates a magmatic origin. Eighteen analyses are concordant and yield a mean 206Pb/238U age of 147 ± 1 Ma (Fig. 6b), which is regarded as the crystallization age of the granodiorite.

Zircon grains in Sample SKG-081 (granodiorite) are euhedral to subhedral, colourless or light brown, with lengths of 70 to 400 µm and length/width ratios of 1.5 to 6/1. They generally show typical oscillatory zoning in CL images (Fig. 5) and have relatively high Th/U ratios of 0.34 to 0.84, indicating their magmatic origin. Twenty analyses are concordant with a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 176 ± 1 Ma (Fig. 6c), which is in agreement with the previous analytical result (175.9 ± 1.6 Ma, Chu et al., 2012) and is interpreted to be the crystallization age of the granodiorite.

5.2.2 Granitoids in LXR

Zircon crystals in Sample CHS-021 (syenogranite) are euhedral to subhedral, transparent to dark, with lengths of 60 to 150 µm and length/width ratios of 1 to 2.5/1. They have inconspicuous or obvious oscillatory zoning in CL images (Fig. 5), with relatively high Th/U ratios of 0.36 to 1.22, indicating a magmatic origin. Fourteen analyses form a concordant cluster yielding a mean 206Pb/238U age of 200 ± 2 Ma (Fig. 6d), interpreted as the crystallization age of the syenogranite.

Zircon grains in Sample DA-063 (alkali-feldspar granite) are euhedral and prismatic, grey to light maroon in colour, with lengths of 100 to 400 µm and length/width ratios of 1.5 to 5/1. All the zircons display apparent oscillatory zoning in CL images (Fig. 5) and have high Th/U ratios (0.49–1.75), suggesting they are magmatic in origin. Eighteen analyses are concordant or near-concordant, with a mean 206Pb/238U age of 194 ± 1 Ma (Fig. 6e), which represents the crystallization age of the alkali-feldspar granite.

Zircon grains in Sample TJG-021 (plagiogranite porphyry) are euhedral and prismatic, colourless to grey, with lengths of 60 to 180 µm and length/width ratios of 1.5 to 4/1. They have moderate Th/U ratios of 0.25 to 0.46, yet all of them show typical oscillatory zoning in CL images (Fig. 5), indicating a magmatic origin. Nineteen analyses form a concordant group with a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 106 ± 1 Ma (Fig. 6f), which is in accordance with the recent dating result (107.0 ± 1.2 Ma, Sun et al., 2013) and is interpreted as the crystallization age of the plagiogranite porphyry.

Zircon grains in Sample LM-0101 (monzogranite) are euhedral–subhedral, colourless and transparent, with lengths of 100 to 250 µm and length/width ratios of 1 to 3/1. The oscillatory zoning shown in CL images (Fig. 5) and the relatively high Th/U ratios (0.47–0.73) reveal their magmatic origin. Fourteen analyses are concordant or near-concordant and yield a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 181 ± 2 Ma (Fig. 6g), which is similar to the recently published data (176 ± 2.2 Ma, Yang et al., 2012) and is considered as the crystallization age of the monzogranite.

Zircon grains in Sample XLJG-011 (monzogranite) are mostly euhedral, light grey in colour, with lengths of 80 to 220 µm and length/width ratios of 1 to 3/1. All the zircons show apparent oscillatory zoning in CL images (Fig. 5), with Th/U ratios of 0.41 to 0.64, indicating their magmatic origin. Seventeen analyses form a coherent cluster and yield a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 181 ± 1 Ma (Fig. 6h), considered as the crystallization age of the monzogranite.

5.3 Zircon Lu–Hf isotopes

A total of 41 dated zircon grains from the eight samples were selected for Lu–Hf isotopic analyses. The results are listed in Table 2 and plotted in Figure 7.

Table 2. Hf isotopic compositions of zircons from the Mesozoic granitoids in GXR and LXR
SpotAge (Ma)176Yb/177Hf176Lu/177Hf176Hf/177Hf(176Hf/177Hf)iϵHf(0)ϵHf(t)TDM1 (Ma)TDM2 (Ma)fLu/Hf
  1. ϵHf(0) = [(176Hf/177Hf)s/(176Hf/177Hf)CHUR,0 − 1] × 10000; ϵHf(t) = [((176Hf/177Hf)s − (176Lu/177Hf)s (eλt − 1))/((176Hf/177Hf)CHUR,0 − (176Lu/177Hf)CHUR (eλt − 1)) − 1] × 10000; TDM1 (Ma) and TDM2 (Ma) refer to the single-stage and two-stage model age relative to depleted mantle, respectively, TDM1 = 1/λ × ln(1 + ((176Hf/177Hf)S − (176Hf/177Hf)DM)/((176Lu/177Hf)S − (176Lu/177Hf)DM))); TDM2 = 1/λ × ln(1 + ((176Hf/177Hf)S,t − (176Hf/177Hf)DM,t)/((176Lu/177Hf)c − (176Lu/177Hf)DM)) + t; f(Lu/Hf) = (176Lu/177Hf)s/(176Hf/177Hf)CHUR − 1, where (176Lu/177Hf)S and (176Hf/177Hf)s are the measured values of the samples, (176Lu/177Hf)CHUR = 0.0332 and (176Hf/177Hf)CHUR,0 = 0.282772 (Blichert-Toft and Albarède, 1997); (176Lu/177Hf)DM = 0.0384 and (176Hf/177Hf)DM = 0.28325 (Griffin et al., 2000), (176Lu/177Hf)c = 0.015, t = crystallization age of rock, 176Lu decay constant λ = 1.867 × 10−5 myr (Soderlund et al., 2004).

CLK-011 (biotite monzogranite)
B11630.0356400.0011280.2826990.0000250.282703−2.60.97871030−0.97
B21640.0220330.0006640.2827430.0000250.282740−1.02.5715940−0.98
B31620.0333750.0009720.2827000.0000280.282703−2.50.97811026−0.97
B41600.0337600.0010070.2826980.0000230.282697−2.60.87851032−0.97
B51670.0343290.0010300.2826950.0000290.282692−2.70.87901035−0.97
DHS-0151 (granodiorite)
B11450.0180950.0005200.2828620.0000340.2828433.26.3546711−0.98
B21460.0347730.0009300.2828500.0000290.2828232.75.9569738−0.97
B31470.0257900.0007130.2828650.0000300.2828533.36.4545706−0.98
B41470.0264170.0007360.2828530.0000350.2828252.96.0561729−0.98
B51490.0246380.0006770.2828590.0000390.2828303.16.3553717−0.98
SKG-081 (granodiorite)
B11770.0330040.0008400.2829600.0000260.2829506.610.4412507−0.97
B21780.0650360.0014950.2829380.0000390.2829675.99.6451554−0.95
B31740.0622870.0015120.2829870.0000240.2829797.611.3381458−0.95
B41750.0557160.0013930.2829540.0000270.2829556.410.1427523−0.96
B51750.0601990.0014470.2829440.0000270.2829376.19.8441542−0.96
CHS-021 (syenogranite)
B11990.0016820.0626580.2827650.0000220.282759−0.23.9703889−0.95
B22020.0022130.0841790.2827410.0000210.282758−1.13.1748939−0.93
B31980.0014040.0505490.2827260.0000180.282737−1.62.5753964−0.96
B42000.0016180.0595160.2827500.0000200.282768−0.83.4723917−0.95
B52020.0015910.0583200.2827310.0000190.282754−1.42.8749954−0.95
DA-063 (alkali-feldspar granite)
B11930.0377350.0009150.2827010.0000300.282748−2.51.67791012−0.97
B21950.0878100.0021080.2827630.0000260.282776−0.33.7713897−0.94
B31960.0835900.0019610.2827290.0000290.282762−1.52.5761963−0.94
B41910.0942060.0021910.2827370.0000330.282752−1.32.7754952−0.93
B51950.0549850.0013770.2827890.0000290.2827980.64.7662840−0.96
TJG-021 (plagiogranite porphyry)
B11060.0360430.0009070.2829380.0000270.2829355.98.2443578−0.97
B21060.0281010.0006830.2829040.0000250.2828964.77.0489644−0.98
B31080.0308870.0007540.2829310.0000270.2829355.67.9453592−0.98
B41030.0425680.0010260.2829400.0000220.2829436.08.1442575−0.97
B51080.0390580.0009580.2829280.0000270.2829405.57.8459598−0.97
LM-0101 (monzogranite)
B11810.0256740.0007150.2827610.0000360.282761−0.43.5691897−0.98
B21830.0218360.0005960.2827500.0000360.282744−0.83.2703917−0.98
B31790.0352970.0009240.2827550.0000380.282753−0.63.2702910−0.97
B41800.0249930.0006720.2827540.0000370.282752−0.63.3699910−0.98
B51810.0243220.0006750.2827760.0000390.2827680.14.0669868−0.98
B61810.0295120.0007620.2827540.0000410.282758−0.63.2701911−0.98
XLJG-011 (monzogranite)
B11790.0169660.0003710.2826920.0000250.282713−2.81.17801031−0.99
B21830.0445580.0010400.2827240.0000220.282747−1.72.2749972−0.97
B31820.0217660.0006280.2827530.0000200.282756−0.73.3700911−0.98
B41810.0191370.0005450.2827510.0000240.282745−0.73.2702916−0.98
B51820.0262420.0008150.2827120.0000290.282728−2.11.8761993−0.98
image

Figure 7. Correlations between Hf isotopic compositions and zircon U–Pb ages of the Mesozoic granitoids in GXR (a) and LXR (b). This figure is available in colour online at wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/gj

Download figure to PowerPoint

Zircons from three granitoids in GXR (Samples CLK-011, DHS-0151, and SKG-081) yield ϵHf(t) values of 0.8 to 2.5, 5.9 to 6.4, and 9.6 to 11.3, respectively (Fig. 7a), corresponding to two-stage Hf model ages (TDM2) of 940 to 1035, 706 to 738, and 458 to 554 Ma. Four granitoid samples from LXR (Samples CHS-021, DA-063, LM-0101 and XLJG-011) display uniform ϵHf(t) values of 1.1 to 4.7 (Fig. 7b), with TDM2 ages from 840 to 1031 Ma, while zircons from the one remaining sample (TJG-021) show relatively high ϵHf(t) values of 7.0 to 8.2 (Fig. 7b), yielding TDM2 ages of 575 to 644 Ma.

5.4 Whole-rock Sr–Nd isotopes

The whole-rock Sr–Nd isotopic data are listed in Table 3. The initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios ((87Sr/86Sr)i), initial 143Nd/144Nd ratios ((143Nd/144Nd)i) and ϵNd(t) values were calculated according to their zircon U–Pb ages.

Table 3. Rb–Sr and Sm–Nd isotopic compositions of the Mesozoic granitoids in GXR and LXR
SampleLithologyt (Ma)Rb (ppm)Sr (ppm)87Rb/86Sr87Sr/86Sr(87Sr/86Sr)iSm (ppm)Nd (ppm)147Sm/144Nd143Nd/144Nd(143Nd/144Nd)iϵNd(t)TDM2 (Ma)
  1. Chondrite uniform reservoir (CHUR) values (87Rb/86Sr = 0.0816, 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7045, 147Sm/144Nd = 0.1967 and 143Nd/144Nd = 0.512638) are used for calculation. λRb = 1.42 × 10−11 (Steiger and Jäger, 1977), λSm = 6.54 × 10−12 (Lugmair and Harti, 1978). Two-stage model age (TDM2) calculations follow Jahn et al. (1999).

CLK-011Biotite monzogranite163818801.16940.7084650.7057553.120.30.09080.5123500.512253−3.41230
DHS-0151Granodiorite1471026890.42750.7067240.7058314.024.30.09890.5125600.5124650.3913
SKG-081Granodiorite17673.34720.44740.7054690.7043513.619.70.11080.5126630.5125362.4765
CHS-021Syenogranite2001701672.96410.7153570.7073746.2340.11080.5124040.512267−2.21176
DA-063Alkali-feldspar granite1941931134.99050.7182880.7045432.516.80.08840.5123830.512271−2.31164
TJG-021Plagiogranite porphyry1061393891.03050.7077360.7061843.115.10.12310.5126170.5125320.6857
LM-0101Monzogranite1811662312.08250.7124420.7070925.128.10.11060.5124200.512289−2.31151
XLJG-011Monzogranite1811632501.88360.7118560.7070035.1260.11840.5124050.512265−2.71189

Granitoids from GXR show (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios ranging from 0.704351 to 0.705831, with ϵNd(t) values ranging from −3.4 to 2.4. Analogously, samples from LXR have (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios of 0.704543 to 0.707374, with ϵNd(t) values of −2.7 to 0.6. The two-stage Nd model ages (TDM2) are 765 to 1230 Ma for granitoids in GXR and 857 to 1189 Ma for granitoids in LXR.

6 Discussion

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. 1 Introduction
  4. 2 Geological Setting
  5. 3 Petrography
  6. 4 Analytical Methods
  7. 5 Results
  8. 6 Discussion
  9. 7 Conclusions
  10. Acknowledgements
  11. References
  12. Supporting Information

6.1 Timing of the Mesozoic magmatism

It has been suggested that the granitic and volcanic rocks may occupy more than 50% of GXR, LXR and the Zhangguangcai Range (Jahn et al., 2000a, 2000b; Wu et al., 2000, 2011). Most of the granitoids were generated during the Phanerozoic, especially during the Mesozoic. Wu et al. (2011) summarized the previously published zircon U–Pb data for the Phanerozoic granitoids in NE China and proposed that granitoids exposed in GXR were mainly generated during the Early Cretaceous with some in the Palaeozoic, whereas granitoids in LXR and the Zhangguangcai Range were mainly formed during the Jurassic with some in the Palaeozoic and Triassic. Our zircon U–Pb data, combined with several recently published results (Zhang et al., 2010; Liu et al., 2011, 2014; Sun et al., 2013), suggest that the Jurassic magmatism may also be important in GXR, and the Early Cretaceous granitoids can be found in LXR as well, although they may not occupy the principal part. These indicate that there was continuous magmatism (and volcanism) in both GXR and LXR during the Jurassic–Early Cretaceous interval.

6.2 Petrogenesis

Our analysed samples generally have A/CNK values less than 1.1 (except Samples TJG-021 and TJG-023), which is in accordance with previous studies (Wu et al., 2000, 2011) and suggests that they are mainly A-type or I-type granites, but not S-type. The discrimination diagrams of Zr and Nb versus 10 000 × Ga/Al (Fig. 8a and b) additionally clarify that most of them belong to I-type granites. The Nb, Ta, P, Ti, Eu and ±Ba anomalies imply various degrees of fractional crystallization during the formation of these granitoids. The granitoids in LXR display relatively stronger Eu and Ba anomalies than the granitoids in GXR, possibly indicating more extensive fractionation of K-feldspar.

image

Figure 8. (a) Zr and (b) Nb vs 10 000 × Ga/Al discrimination diagrams for the Mesozoic granitoids in GXR and LXR (after Whalen et al., 1987).

Download figure to PowerPoint

Five Early Jurassic granite samples yield (87Sr/86Sr)i values of 0.704351 to 0.707374, ϵNd(t) values of −2.7 to 2.4, and ϵHf(t) values of 1.1 to 11.3. Two Late Jurassic samples have (87Sr/86Sr)i values of 0.705755 to 0.705831, ϵNd(t) values of −3.4 to 0.3, and ϵHf(t) values of 0.8 to 6.4. One Early Cretaceous sample displays (87Sr/86Sr)i value of 0.706184, ϵNd(t) value of 0.6, and ϵHf(t) values of 7.0 to 8.2. There seems no major difference between the isotopic compositions of granitoids formed during various periods. However, these results, combined with the previously published Sr–Nd isotopic data (Li and Yu, 1994; Wang and Zhao, 1997; Wu et al., 2000, 2002; Wei et al., 2001), suggest that the Jurassic granitoids have ϵNd(t) values varying from negative to positive, while the Early Cretaceous granitoids mostly exhibit positive ϵNd(t) values (Fig. 9). Moreover, the two-stage Hf and Nd model ages of the Jurassic granitoids vary significantly from 458 to 1035 and 765 to 1230 Ma, respectively, while the Early Cretaceous granitoid yields relatively younger two-stage Hf and Nd model ages of 575 to 644 and 857 Ma, respectively. Therefore, we propose that the source rocks of the Jurassic granitoids are complicated and involve both depleted mantle and crustal materials, whereas the parental magmas of the Early Cretaceous granitoids may be dominantly related to a juvenile mantle reservoir.

image

Figure 9. Initial Nd–Sr isotopic compositions of the Mesozoic granitoids in GXR and LXR. The samples marked in black are from Li and Yu (1994), Wang and Zhao (1997), Wu et al. (2000, 2002) and Wei et al. (2001). The samples marked in red are from this study. The fields of mantle components are from Zindler and Hart (1986). This figure is available in colour online at wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/gj

Download figure to PowerPoint

The Sr–Nd–Hf isotopic variations of the Jurassic granitoids may be caused by multiple mechanisms: (1) melting of mixed sources composed of depleted mantle and pre-existing crustal components; (2) depleted-mantle-derived magmas contaminated by crustal materials during magma ascent; (3) mixing of depleted-mantle and crustally derived magmas. According to the results obtained in this study and previous studies (Wu et al., 2000, 2002; Chu et al., 2012; Yang et al., 2012), the major and trace elements and zircon Hf isotopic ratios are generally homogeneous for each single pluton, and no mingling structures or mafic enclaves are observed in the field or under the microscope, which preclude the possibility of extensive crustal contamination or magma mixing. Since NE China was suffering subduction from both the Mongol–Okhotsk Ocean and the Palaeo-Pacific Ocean during the Jurassic, we argue that most of these Jurassic granitoids were generated by melting of mixed sources composed of depleted mantle and pre-existing crustal components in or near subduction zones. The amount of depleted mantle components involved in their parental magmas may vary from pluton to pluton.

As for the Early Cretaceous granitoids, their positive ϵNd(t) and ϵHf(t) values could be interpreted by different models invoking (1) fractional crystallization of mantle-derived magmas and (2) partial melting of a depleted lithospheric mantle. The lack of coeval mafic rocks in NE China, combined with their high SiO2 contents and low MgO, Cr and Ni contents, indicates that they were unlikely derived directly from fractional crystallization of a mantle-derived magma. Alternatively, NE China experienced large-scale lithospheric delamination during the Early Cretaceous (Mao et al., 2003, 2005; Wu et al., 2005), and the lithospheric mantle transformed from an enriched mantle to a depleted mantle during this process. The upwelling of asthenosphere and the decompression of the lithospheric extension resulted in the generation of immense volumes of granitoids and volcanic rocks in NE China.

6.3 Tectonic implications

It is suggested that the geodynamic evolution of NE China during the Mesozoic was dominated by two successive tectonic regimes: (1) closure of the Mongol–Okhotsk Ocean and subsequent post-orogenic lithospheric extension (Guo et al., 2001; Wang et al., 2002, 2006, 2011; Fan et al., 2003; Meng, 2003; Ying et al., 2010); (2) subduction of the Palaeo-Pacific Plate (Hilde et al., 1977; Jiang and Quan, 1988; Liu et al., 2000; Li and Shu, 2002) and subsequent lithospheric delamination (Wu et al., 2005; Zhang et al., 2010).

According to the newly obtained palaeomagnetic data, the final closure of the Mongol–Okhotsk Ocean probably took place during the Early Cretaceous (Cogné et al., 2005; Metelkin et al., 2010; Pei et al., 2011), rather than the Jurassic as previously suggested (Liu et al., 2004). Systematic palaeobiogeographical and palaeomagnetic studies additionally suggest that the Mongol–Okhotsk Ocean might have closed in a ‘scissors-like’ movement from west to east (Zhao et al., 1990; Tomurtogoo et al., 2005; Xiao et al., 2009; Ying et al., 2010; D. Li et al., 2013), and it took a northward subduction beneath the Siberia Plate (Van der Voo et al., 1999; Kravchinsky et al., 2002; Zorin et al., 2002), which means the closure of the Mongol–Okhotsk Ocean might have had a limited effect on the evolution of NE China.

Alternatively, the voluminous Mesozoic igneous rocks in NE China dominantly distributed in a linear NNE direction, parallel to the East Asian continental margin, indicate that the subduction of the Palaeo-Pacific Ocean may have exerted a significant role in the generation of the Mesozoic igneous rocks. However, previous studies have suggested that the Palaeo-Pacific Ocean subducted obliquely beneath East Asia in a north or NNE direction, and the orthogonal subduction only began at the end of the Late Cretaceous (Engebretson et al., 1985; Kimura et al., 1990; Maruyama et al., 1997). Therefore, the subduction of the Palaeo-Pacific Ocean was unlikely to have triggered broad back-arc extension and intensive magmatism in NE China during the Mesozoic. Besides, the Mesozoic igneous rocks are also widely distributed in central and south Mongolia (Yarmolyuk and Kovalenko, 2001), which are too far away from the continental margin to be induced by the subduction of the Palaeo-Pacific Ocean.

In summary, either the closure of the Mongol–Okhotsk Ocean or the subduction of the Palaeo-Pacific Plate alone cannot explain the tectonic setting and magmatism in NE China during the Mesozoic. Based on the geological and geophysical evidences, we prefer that the tectonic evolution in NE China during the Mesozoic was governed by the interaction of these two tectonic regimes.

In the Jurassic, the Mongol–Okhotsk Ocean subducted beneath the Siberia Plate in northeastern Mongolia (Zorin, 1999; Kravchinsky et al., 2002; Tomurtogoo et al., 2005), resulting in sporadic magmatism in GXR. While the contemporaneous subduction of the Palaeo-Pacific Plate resulted in the generation of widespread granitoids in LXR. This is in agreement with the tectonic discrimination diagrams of Ta vs Yb (Fig. 10a) and Rb vs Y + Nb (Fig. 10b), in which the analysed samples mostly plot within the volcanic arc field.

image

Figure 10. (a) Ta vs Yb and (b) Rb vs Y + Nb tectonic discrimination diagrams for the Mesozoic granitoids in GXR and LXR (after Pearce et al., 1984). Syn-COLG: syn-collisional; VAG: volcanic arc; WPG: within-plate; ORG: ocean-ridge granites.

Download figure to PowerPoint

In the beginning of the Early Cretaceous, the Mongol–Okhotsk Ocean finally closed, and the Siberia Block and the Mongol–North China Block amalgamated. This process is accompanied by the NNW-oriented subduction of the Palaeo-Pacific Plate (Maruyama et al., 1997). Subsequently, the tectonic setting transformed into an extensional regime, as a result of the gravitational collapse of the orogenically thickened crust (S.R. Li et al., 2013). Meanwhile, the subduction direction of the Palaeo-Pacific Plate turned to the north or NNE. These combined effects led to broad lithospheric extension and asthenospheric upwelling, resulting in the formation of a series of sedimentary basins, metamorphic core complexes, as well as large amounts of granitoids which were dominantly sourced from a depleted mantle (Graham et al., 2001; Meng, 2003; Ying et al., 2010).

7 Conclusions

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. 1 Introduction
  4. 2 Geological Setting
  5. 3 Petrography
  6. 4 Analytical Methods
  7. 5 Results
  8. 6 Discussion
  9. 7 Conclusions
  10. Acknowledgements
  11. References
  12. Supporting Information

Zircon U–Pb ages of the granitoids indicate that there was continuous magmatism throughout the Great Xing′an and Lesser Xing′an ranges during the Jurassic–Early Cretaceous interval.

The Jurassic granitoids originated from mixed sources involving depleted mantle and pre-existing crustal components. The Early Cretaceous granitoids were mostly generated by partial melting of a juvenile lithospheric mantle.

The magmatism and tectonic evolution in NE China during the Mesozoic were governed by the interaction of the Mongol–Okhotsk and the Palaeo-Pacific tectonic regimes. The Jurassic magmatism in the Great Xing′an Range was related to the subduction of the Mongol–Okhotsk Ocean, while the contemporaneous magmatism in the Lesser Xing′an Range was mostly associated with the subduction of the Palaeo-Pacific Ocean. The extensive Early Cretaceous magmatism in NE China was attributed to the lithospheric delamination in this period.

Acknowledgements

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. 1 Introduction
  4. 2 Geological Setting
  5. 3 Petrography
  6. 4 Analytical Methods
  7. 5 Results
  8. 6 Discussion
  9. 7 Conclusions
  10. Acknowledgements
  11. References
  12. Supporting Information

This research was funded by the Special Scientific Research Fund of Public Welfare Profession of China (grant nos. 201211008) and the resource compensation of Heilongjiang Province (grant nos. SDK2010-25). We appreciate the thoughtful reviews provided by Dr Q. Y. Yang, Prof. M. Santosh, Prof. D. Somerville and an anonymous reviewer. The study benefited from discussion with Dr D. H. Pi and Dr Z. J. Zhang. G. P. Zeng is thanked for his assistance in LA–ICP–MS U–Pb dating.

References

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. 1 Introduction
  4. 2 Geological Setting
  5. 3 Petrography
  6. 4 Analytical Methods
  7. 5 Results
  8. 6 Discussion
  9. 7 Conclusions
  10. Acknowledgements
  11. References
  12. Supporting Information
  • Bai, L.A., Sun, J.G., Zhang, Y., Han, S.J., Yang, F.C., Men, L.J., Gu, A.L., Zhao, K.Q. 2012. Genetic type, mineralization epoch and geodynamical setting of endogenous copper deposits in the Great Xing′an Range. Acta Petrologica Sinica 28, 468482 (in Chinese with English abstract).
  • Blichert-Toft, J., Albarède, F. 1997. The Lu–Hf isotope geochemistry of chondrites and the evolution of the mantle–crust system. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 148, 243258.
  • Blichert-Toft, J., Chauvel, C., Albarède, F. 1997. Separation of Hf and Lu for high-precision isotope analysis of rock samples by magnetic sector multiple collector ICP–MS. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 127, 248260.
  • Cao, X., Dang, Z.X., Zhang, X.Z., Jiang, J.S., Wang, H.D. 1992. The Composite Jiamusi Terrane. Jilin Publishing House of Science and Technology: Jilin (in Chinese with English and Russian abstracts).
  • Chen, Y.J., Zhang, C., Li, N., Yang, Y.F., Deng, K. 2012. Geology of the Mo Deposits in Northeast China. Journal of Jilin University (Earth Science Edition) 42, 12231268 (in Chinese with English abstract).
  • Chu, S., Liu, J., Xu, J., Wei, H., Chai, H., Tong, K. 2012. Zircon U–Pb dating, petrogenesis and tectonic significance of the granodiorite in the Sankuanggou skarn Fe–Cu deposit, Heilongjiang Province. Acta Petrologica Sinica 28, 433450 (in Chinese with English abstract).
  • Cogné, J.P., Kravchinsky, V.A., Halim, N., Hankard, F. 2005. Late Jurassic–Early Cretaceous closure of the Mongol–Okhotsk Ocean demonstrated by new Mesozoic palaeomagnetic results from the Trans-Baikal area (SE Siberia). Geophysical Journal International 163, 813832.
  • Deng, J.F., Zhao, H.L., Mo, X.X., Luo, Z.H., Du, S.Y. 1996. Continental Root/Plume Structure in China—Key to the Continental Geodynamics. Geological Publishing House: Beijing (in Chinese).
  • Engebretson, D.C., Cox, A., Gordon, R.G. 1985. Relative motions between oceanic and continental plates in the Pacific basin. Geological Society of America, Special Paper 206, 159.
  • Fan, W.M., Guo, F., Wang, Y.J., Lin, G. 2003. Late Mesozoic calc-alkaline volcanism of post-orogenic extension in the northern Da Hinggan Mountains, northeastern China. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 121, 115135.
  • Ge, W.C., Lin, Q., Sun, D.Y., Wu, F.Y., Won, C.K., Won, L.M., Jim, Y.S., Yun, S.H. 1999. Geochemical characteristics of the Mesozoic basalts in Da Hinggan Ling: evidence of the mantle-crust interaction. Acta Petrologica Sinica 15, 397407 (in Chinese with English abstract).
  • Ge, W.C., Wu, F.Y., Zhou, C.Y., Rahman, A.A.A. 2005. Emplacement age of the Tahe granite and its constraints on the tectonic nature of the Ergun block in the northern part of the Da Hinggan Range. Chinese Science Bulletin 50, 20972105.
  • Ge, W.C., Wu, F.Y., Zhou, C.Y., Zhang, J.H. 2007. Mineralization ages and geodynamic implications of porphyry Cu–Mo deposits in the east of Xingmeng orogenic belt. Chinese Science Bulletin 52, 24072417.
  • Glorie, S., De Grave, J., Buslov, M.M., Zhimulev, F.I., Izmer, A., Vandoorne, W., Ryabinin, A., Van den Haute, P., Vanhaecke, F., Elburg, M.A. 2011. Formation and Palaeozoic evolution of the Gorny-Altai-Altai-Mongolia suture zone (South Siberia): zircon U/Pb constraints on the igneous record. Gondwana Research 20, 465484.
  • Goldfarb, R.J., Santosh, M. 2014. The dilemma of the Jiaodong gold deposits: are they unique? Geoscience Frontiers 5, 139153.
  • Gou, J., Sun, D.Y., Ren, Y.S., Liu, Y.J., Zhang, S.Y., Fu, C.L., Wang, T.H., Wu, P.F., Liu, X.M. 2013. Petrogenesis and geodynamic setting of Neoproterozoic and Late Palaeozoic magmatism in the Manzhouli–Erguna area of Inner Mongolia, China: geochronological, geochemical and Hf isotopic evidence. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 67–68, 114137.
  • Graham, S.A., Hendrix, M.S., Johnson, C.L., Badamgarav, D., Badarch, G., Amory, J., Porter, M., Barsbold, R., Webb, L.E., Hacker, B.R. 2001. Sedimentary record and tectonic implications of Mesozoic rifting in southeast Mongolia. Geological Society of America Bulletin 113, 15601579.
  • Griffin, W., Pearson, N.J., Belousova, E., Jackson, S.E., Van Achterbergh, E., O'Reilly, S.Y., Shee, S.R. 2000. The Hf isotope composition of cratonic mantle: LA–MC–ICPMS analysis of zircon megacrysts in kimberlites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 64, 133148.
  • Guo, F., Fan, W.M., Wang, Y.J., Lin, G. 2001. Petrogenesis of the late Mesozoic bimodal volcanic rocks in the southern Da Hinggan Mts, China. Acta Petrologica Sinica 17, 161168 (in Chinese with English abstract).
  • Hilde, T.W.C., Uyeda, S., Kroenke, L. 1977. Evolution of the western Pacific and its margin. Tectonophysics 38, 145165.
  • Hu, Z.C., Liu, Y.S., Gao, S., Liu, W.G., Zhang, W., Tong, X.R., Lin, L., Zong, K.Q., Li, M., Chen, H.H., Zhou, L., Yang, L. 2012a. Improved in situ Hf isotope ratio analysis of zircon using newly designed X skimmer cone and jet sample cone in combination with the addition of nitrogen by laser ablation multiple collector ICP–MS. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry 27, 13911399.
  • Hu, Z.C., Liu, Y.S., Gao, S., Xiao, S.Q., Zhao, L.S., Guenther, D., Li, M., Zhang, W., Zong, K.Q. 2012b. A “wire” signal smoothing device for laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. Spectrochimica Acta Part B—Atomic Spectroscopy 78, 5057.
  • Jahn, B.M., Wu, F.Y., Lo, C.H., Tsai, C.H. 1999. Crust–mantle interaction induced by deep subduction of the continental crust: geochemical and Sr–Nd isotopic evidence from post-collisional mafic–ultramafic intrusions of the northern Dabie complex, central China. Chemical Geology 157, 119146.
  • Jahn, B.M., Wu, F.Y., Chen, B. 2000a. Massive granitoid generation in Central Asia: Nd isotope evidence and implication for continental growth in the Phanerozoic. Episodes 23, 8292.
  • Jahn, B.M., Wu, F.Y., Hong, D.W. 2000b. Important crustal growth in the Phanerozoic: isotopic evidence of granitoids from east-central Asia. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences-Earth and Planetary Sciences 109, 520.
  • Jahn, B.M., Wu, F.Y., Capdevila, R., Martineau, F., Zhao, Z.H., Wang, Y.X. 2001. Highly evolved juvenile granites with tetrad REE patterns: the Woduhe and Baerzhe granites from the Great Xing′an Mountains in NE China. Lithos 59, 171198.
  • Jahn, B.M., Capdevila, R., Liu, D.Y., Vernon, A., Badarch, G. 2004. Sources of Phanerozoic granitoids in the transect Bayanhongor-Ulaan Baatar, Mongolia: geochemical and Nd isotopic evidence, and implications for Phanerozoic crustal growth. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 23, 629653.
  • Jahn, B.M., Litvinovsky, B.A., Zanvilevich, A.N., Reichow, M. 2009. Peralkaline granitoid magmatism in the Mongolian–Transbaikalian Belt: evolution, petrogenesis and tectonic significance. Lithos 113, 521539.
  • Jiang, G.Y., Quan, H. 1988. Mesozoic volcanic rocks of Genhe and Hailar basins in Da Hinggan Ling Range: bulletin of Shenyang Institute Research. Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences 17, 23100 (in Chinese with English abstract).
  • Kimura, G., Takahashi, M., Kono, M. 1990. Mesozoic collision extrusion tectonics in eastern Asia. Tectonophysics 181, 1523.
  • Kravchinsky, V.A., Cogne, J.P., Harbert, W.P., Kuzmin, M.I. 2002. Evolution of the Mongol–Okhotsk Ocean as constrained by new palaeomagnetic data from the Mongol–Okhotsk suture zone, Siberia. Geophysical Journal International 148, 3457.
  • Li, J., Shu, L.S. 2002. Mesozoic–Cenozoic tectonic features and evolution of the Song-Liao Basin, NE China. Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Nankinensis 38, 525531.
  • Li, P.Z., Yu, J.S. 1994. Isotopic geochemistry of Nianzishan miarolitic alkaline granite. In: Isotopic Geochemical Research, Chen, H.S. (ed.). Zhejiang University Press: Hangzhou (in Chinese).
  • Li, D., He, D.F., Qi, X.F., Zhang, N.N. 2013. How was the Carboniferous Balkhash–West Junggar remnant ocean filled and closed? Insights from the Well Tacan-1 strata in the Tacheng Basin, NW China. Gondwana Research. doi: 10.1016/j.gr.2013.10.003
  • Li, N., Chen, Y.J., Ulrich, T., Lai, Y. 2012. Fluid inclusion study of the Wunugetu Cu–Mo deposit, Inner Mongolia, China. Mineralium Deposita 47, 467482.
  • Li, S.Q., Chen, F.K., Siebel, W., Wu, J.D., Zhu, X.Y., Shan, X.L., Sun, X.M. 2012. Late Mesozoic tectonic evolution of the Songliao basin, NE China: evidence from detrital zircon ages and Sr–Nd isotopes. Gondwana Research 22, 943955.
  • Li, S.R., Santosh, M., Zhang, H.F., Shen, J.F., Dong, G.C., Wang, J.Z., Zhang, J.Q. 2013. Inhomogeneous lithospheric thinning in the central North China Craton: zircon U–Pb and S–He–Ar isotopic record from magmatism and metallogeny in the Taihang Mountains. Gondwana Research 23, 141160.
  • Li, S.R., Santosh, M. 2014. Metallogeny and craton destruction: records from the North China Craton. Ore Geology Reviews 56, 376414.
  • Lin, Q., Ge, W.C., Sun, D.Y., Wu, F.Y. 1999. Geomechanical significance of the Mesozoic volcanics in Northeast Asia. Chinese Journal of Geophysics-Chinese Edition 42, 7584 (in Chinese with English abstract).
  • Lin, Q., Ge, W.C., Wu, F.Y., Sun, D.Y., Lin, C. 2004. Geochemistry of Mesozoic granites in Da Hinggan Ling Ranges. Acta Petrologica Sinica 20, 403412 (in Chinese with English abstract).
  • Liu, H.F., Liang, H.S., Li, X.Q., Yin, J.G., Zhu, D.F., Liu, L.Q. 2000. The coupling mechanisms of Mesozoic–Cenozoic rift basins and extensional mountain system in eastern China. Earth Science Frontiers 7, 477486 (in Chinese with English abstract).
  • Liu, J.M., Zhang, R., Zhang, Q.Z. 2004. The regional metallogeny of Da Hinggan Ling, China. Earth Science Frontiers 11, 269277 (in Chinese with English abstract).
  • Liu, Y.S., Hu, Z.C., Gao, S., Günther, D., Xu, J., Gao, C.G., Chen, H.H. 2008a. In situ analysis of major and trace elements of anhydrous minerals by LA–ICP–MS without applying an internal standard. Chemical Geology 257, 3443.
  • Liu, Y.S., Zong, K.Q., Kelemen, P.B., Gao, S. 2008b. Geochemistry and magmatic history of eclogites and ultramafic rocks from the Chinese continental scientific drill hole: subduction and ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism of lower crustal cumulates. Chemical Geology 247, 133153.
  • Liu, W., Pan, X.F., Liu, D.Y., Chen, Z.Y. 2009. Three-step continental–crust growth from subduction accretion and underplating, through intermediary differentiation, to granitoid production. International Journal of Earth Sciences 98, 14131439.
  • Liu, Y.J., Zhang, X.Z., Jin, W., Chi, X.G., Wang, C.W., Ma, Z.H., Han, G.Q., Wen, Q.B., Li, W., Wang, W.D., Zhao, X.F. 2010. Late Paleozoic tectonic evolution in Northeast China. Geology of China 37, 943951 (in Chinese with English abstract).
  • Liu, C., Deng, J.F., Xu, L.Q., Zhang, Y., Zhao, H.D., Kong, W.Q., Li, N., Luo, Z.H., Bai, L.B., Zhao, G.C., Su, S.G. 2011. A preliminary frame of magma-tectonic-Mo metallogenic events of Mesozoic Era in Da Hinggan Mountains and Xiao Hinggan Mountains areas. Earth Science Frontiers 18, 166178 (in Chinese with English abstract).
  • Liu, J., Mao, J.W., Wu, G., Wang, F., Luo, D., Hu, Y.Q. 2014. Zircon U–Pb and molybdenite Re–Os dating of the Chalukou porphyry Mo deposit in the northern Great Xing′an Range, China and its geological significance. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 79, 696709.
  • Ludwig, K.R. 2003. User's manual for Isoplot 3.00, a geochronological toolkit for Microsoft Excel. Berkeley Geochronological Center Special Publication 4, 2532.
  • Lugmair, G.W., Harti, K. 1978. Lunar initial 143Nd/144Nd: differential evolution of the lunar crust and mantle. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 39, 349357.
  • Mao, J.W., Zhang, Z.H., Yu, J.J., Wang, Y.T., Niu, B.G. 2003. Geodynamic settings of the Mesozoic large-scale metallogenesis in North China and adjacent regions: implications from accurate dating of metallic ore deposits. Science China-Series D 04, 289299 (in Chinese).
  • Mao, J.W., Xie, G.Q., Zhang, Z.H., Li, X.F., Wang, Y.T., Zhang, C.Q., Li, Y.F. 2005. Mesozoic large-scale metallogenic pulses in North China and corresponding geodynamic settings. Acta Petrologica Sinica 21, 169188 (in Chinese with English abstract).
  • Maruyama, S., Isozaki, Y., Kimura, G., Terabayashi, M. 1997. Paleogeographic maps of the Japanese Islands: plate tectonic synthesis from 750 Ma to the present. Island Arc 6, 121142.
  • Meng, Q.R. 2003. What drove late Mesozoic extension of the northern China–Mongolia tract? Tectonophysics 369, 155174.
  • Metelkin, D.V., Vernikovsky, V.A., Kazansky, A.Y., Wingate, M.T.D. 2010. Late Mesozoic tectonics of Central Asia based on paleomagnetic evidence. Gondwana Research 18, 400419.
  • Miao, L.C., Fan, W.M., Zhang, F.Q., Liu, D.Y., Jian, P., Shi, G.H., Tao, H., Shi, Y.R. 2004. Zircon SHRIMP geochronology of the Xinkailing–Kele complex in the northwestern Lesser Xing′an Range, and its geological implications. Chinese Science Bulletin 49, 201209.
  • Miao, L.C., Liu, D.Y., Zhang, F.Q., Fan, W.M., Shi, Y.R., Xie, H.Q. 2007. Zircon SHRIMP U–Pb ages of the “Xinghuadukou Group” in Hanjiayuanzi and Xinlin areas and the “Zhalantun Group” in Inner Mongolia, Da Hinggan Mountains. Chinese Science Bulletin 52, 11121124.
  • Ni, Z.Y., Li, N., Zhang, H., Xue, L.W. 2009. Pb–Sr–Nd isotope constraints on the source of ore-forming elements of the Dahu Au–Mo deposit, Henan province. Acta Petrologica Sinica 25, 28232832 (in Chinese with English abstract).
  • Pearce, J.A., Harris, N.B.W., Tindle, A.G. 1984. Trace-element discrimination diagrams for the tectonic interpretation of granitic-rocks. Journal of Petrology 25, 956983.
  • Pei, J.L., Sun, Z.M., Liu, J., Liu, J., Wang, X.S., Yang, Z.Y., Zhao, Y., Li, H.B. 2011. A paleomagnetic study from the Late Jurassic volcanics (155 Ma), North China: implications for the width of Mongol–Okhotsk Ocean. Tectonophysics 510, 370380.
  • Rickwood, P.C. 1989. Boundary lines within petrologic diagrams which use oxides of major and minor elements. Lithos 22, 247263.
  • Santosh, M., Somerville, I.D. 2013. Tectonic evolution of the North China Craton: introduction. Geological Journal 48, 403405.
  • Segal, I., Halicz, L., Platzner, I.T. 2003. Accurate isotope ratio measurements of ytterbium by multiple collection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry applying erbium and hafnium in an improved double external normalization procedure. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry 18, 12171223.
  • Şengör, A.M.C., Natal'in, B.A. 1996. Paleotectonics of Asia: fragments of a synthesis. In: The Tectonic Evolution of Asia. Yin, A., Harrison, M. (eds). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Shao, J.A., Zang, S.X., Mou, B.L., Li, X.B., Wang, B. 1994. Extensional tectonics and asthenospheric upwelling in the orogenic belt: a case study from Hinggan–Mongolia orogenic belt. Chinese Science Bulletin 39, 533537.
  • Soderlund, U., Patchett, P.J., Vervoort, J.D., Isachsen, C.E. 2004. The 176Lu decay constant determined by Lu–Hf and U–Pb isotope systematics of Precambrian mafic intrusions. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 219, 311324.
  • Steiger, R.H., Jäger, E. 1977. Subcommission on geochronology; convention on the use of decay constants in geochronology and cosmochronology. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 36, 359362.
  • Sun, S.S., McDonough, W.F. 1989. Chemical and isotopic systematics of oceanic basalts: implication for the mantle composition and processes. In: Magmatism in the Oceanic Basalts, Saunder, A.D., Norry, M.J. (eds). Geological Society Special Publication, London, 42; 313345.
  • Sun, J.G., Han, S.J., Zhang, Y., Xing, S.W., Bai, L.A. 2013. Diagenesis and metallogenetic mechanisms of the Tuanjiegou gold deposit from the Lesser Xing′an Range, NE China: zircon U–Pb geochronology and Lu–Hf isotopic constraints. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 62, 373388.
  • Tomurtogoo, O., Windley, B.F., Kroner, A., Badarch, G., Liu, D.Y. 2005. Zircon age and occurrence of the Adaatsag ophiolite and Muron shear zone, central Mongolia: constraints on the evolution of the Mongol–Okhotsk ocean, suture and orogen. Journal of the Geological Society 162, 125134.
  • Van der Voo, R., Spakman, W., Bijwaard, H. 1999. Mesozoic subducted slabs under Siberia. Nature 397, 246249.
  • Wang, H.Z., Mo, X.X. 1995. An outline of the tectonic evolution of China. Episodes 18, 616.
  • Wang, Y.X., Zhao, Z.H. 1997. Geochemistry and origin of the Baerzhe REE–Nb–Be–Zr superlarge deposit. Geochimica 26, 2435 (in Chinese with English abstract).
  • Wang, P.J., Liu, W.Z., Wang, S.X., Song, W.H. 2002. 40Ar/39Ar and K/Ar dating on the volcanic rocks in the Songliao basin, NE China: constraints on stratigraphy and basin dynamics. International Journal of Earth Sciences 91, 331340.
  • Wang, F., Zhou, X.H., Zhang, L.C., Ying, J.F., Zhang, Y.T., Wu, F.Y., Zhu, R.X. 2006. Late Mesozoic volcanism in the Great Xing′an range (NE China): timing and implications for the dynamic setting of NE Asia. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 251, 179198.
  • Wang, C.W., Jin, W., Zhang, X.Z., Ma, Z.H., Chi, X.G., Liu, Y.J., Li, N. 2008. New understanding of the Late Paleozoic tectonics in Northeastern China and adjacent areas. Journal of Stratigraphy 32, 119136 (in Chinese with English abstract).
  • Wang, T., Zheng, Y., Zhang, J., Zeng, L., Donskaya, T., Guo, L., Li, J. 2011. Pattern and kinematic polarity of late Mesozoic extension in continental NE Asia: perspectives from metamorphic core complexes. Tectonics 30, TC6007.
  • Wei, C.S., Zheng, Y.F., Zhao, Z.F. 2001. Nd–Sr–O isotopic geochemistry constraints on the age and origin of the A-type granites in eastern China. Acta Petrologica Sinica 17, 95111 (in Chinese with English abstract).
  • Whalen, J.B., Currie, K.L., Chappell, B.W. 1987. A-type granites—geochemical characteristics, discrimination and petrogenesis. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 95, 407419.
  • Wilde, S.A., Zhang, X.Z., Wu, F.Y. 2000. Extension of a newly identified 500 Ma metamorphic terrane in North East China: further U–Pb SHRIMP dating of the Mashan Complex, Heilongjiang Province, China. Tectonophysics 328, 115130.
  • Wilde, S.A., Wu, F.Y., Zhang, X.Z. 2001. The Mashan Complex: SHRIMP U–Pb zircon evidence for a Late Pan-African metamorphic event in NE China and its implication for global continental reconstructions. Geochimica 30, 3550 (in Chinese with English abstract).
  • Wilde, S.A., Wu, F.Y., Zhao, G.C. 2010. The Khanka Block, NE China, and its significance in the evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. In: The Evolving Continents: Understanding Processes of Continental Growth, Kusky, T.M., Zhai, M.G., Xiao, W.J. (eds). Geological Society of London Special Publication 338; 117137.
  • Windley, B.F., Alexeiev, D., Xiao, W., Kroener, A., Badarch, G. 2007. Tectonic models for accretion of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Journal of the Geological Society 164, 3147.
  • Wu, F.Y., Jahn, B.M., Wilde, S., Sun, D.Y. 2000. Phanerozoic crustal growth: U–Pb and Sr–Nd isotopic evidence from the granites in northeastern China. Tectonophysics 328, 89113.
  • Wu, F.Y., Sun, D.Y., Li, H.M., Wang, X.L. 2001. The nature of basement beneath the Songliao Basin in NE China: geochemical and isotopic constraints. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth Part a-Solid Earth and Geodesy 26, 793803.
  • Wu, F.Y., Sun, D.Y., Li, H.M., Jahn, B.M., Wilde, S. 2002. A-type granites in northeastern China: age and geochemical constraints on their petrogenesis. Chemical Geology 187, 143173.
  • Wu, F.Y., Jahn, B.M., Wilde, S.A., Lo, C.H., Yui, T.F., Lin, Q., Ge, W.C., Sun, D.Y. 2003. Highly fractionated I-type granites in NE China (II): isotopic geochemistry and implications for crustal growth in the Phanerozoic. Lithos 67, 191204.
  • Wu, F.Y., Yang, J.H., Wilde, S.A., Zhang, X.O. 2005. Geochronology, petrogenesis and tectonic implications of Jurassic granites in the Liaodong Peninsula, NE China. Chemical Geology 221, 127156.
  • Wu, F.Y., Yang, J.H., Lo, C.H., Wilde, S.A., Sun, D.Y., Jahn, B.M. 2007. The Heilongjiang Group: a Jurassic accretionary complex in the Jiamusi Massif at the western Pacific margin of northeastern China. Island Arc 16, 156172.
  • Wu, F.Y., Sun, D.Y., Ge, W.C., Zhang, Y.B., Grant, M.L., Wilde, S.A., Jahn, B.M. 2011. Geochronology of the Phanerozoic granitoids in northeastern China. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 41, 130.
  • Xiao, W.J., Santosh, M. 2014. The western Central Asian Orogenic Belt: a window to accretionary orogenesis and continental growth. Gondwana Research 25, 14291444.
  • Xiao, W.J., Windley, B.F., Huang, B.C., Han, C.M., Yuan, C., Chen, H.L., Sun, M., Sun, S., Li, J.L. 2009. End-Permian to mid-Triassic termination of the accretionary processes of the southern Altaids: implications for the geodynamic evolution, Phanerozoic continental growth, and metallogeny of Central Asia. International Journal of Earth Sciences 98, 11891217.
  • Xu, M.J., Xu, W.L., Wang, F., Gao, F.H., Yu, J.J. 2013. Geochronology and geochemistry of the Early Jurassic granitoids in the central Lesser Xing′an Range, NE China and its tectonic implications. Acta Petrologica Sinica 29, 354368 (in Chinese with English abstract).
  • Yang, K.F., Fan, H.R., Santosh, M., Hu, F.F., Wang, K.Y. 2011. Mesoproterozoic carbonatitic magmatism in the Bayan Obo deposit, Inner Mongolia, North China: constraints for the mechanism of super accumulation of rare earth elements. Ore Geology Reviews 40, 122131.
  • Yang, Y.C., Han, S.J., Sun, D.Y., Guo, J., Zhang, S.J. 2012. Geological and geochemical features and geochronology of porphyry molybdenum deposits in the Lesser Xing′an Range-Zhangguangcai Range metallogenic belt. Acta Petrologica Sinica 28, 379390 (in Chinese with English abstract).
  • Yang, Q.Y., Santosh, M., Shen J.F., Li, S.R. 2014. Juvenile vs. recycled crust in NE China: zircon U–Pb geochronology, Hf isotope and an integrated model for Mesozoic gold mineralization in the Jiaodong Peninsula. Gondwana Research 5, 14451468.
  • Yarmolyuk, V.V., Kovalenko, V.I. 2001. The Mesozoic–Cainozoic of Mongolia. In: Tectonics, Magmatism, and Metallogeny of Mongolia, Dergunov, A.B. (ed.). Taylor & Francis Group: London; 203244.
  • Ying, J.F., Zhou, X.H., Zhang, L.C., Wang, F., Zhang, Y.T. 2010. Geochronological and geochemical investigation of the late Mesozoic volcanic rocks from the Northern Great Xing′an Range and their tectonic implications. International Journal of Earth Sciences 99, 357378.
  • Zhai, M.G., Santosh, M. 2011. The early Precambrian odyssey of the North China Craton: a synoptic overview. Gondwana Research 20, 625.
  • Zhai, M.G., Santosh, M. 2013. Metallogeny of the North China Craton: link with secular changes in the evolving Earth. Gondwana Research 24, 275297.
  • Zhang, X.Z. 1992. Heilongjiang melange: the evidence of Caledonian suture zone of the Jiamusi massif. Journal of Changchun University of Earth Sciences 22, 94101 (in Chinese with English abstract).
  • Zhang, L.C., Zhou, X.H., Ying, J.F., Wang, F., Guo, F., Wan, B., Chen, Z.G. 2008. Geochemistry and Sr–Nd–Pb–Hf isotopes of Early Cretaceous basalts from the Great Xinggan Range, NE China: implications for their origin and mantle source characteristics. Chemical Geology 256, 1223.
  • Zhang, X.Z., Zhou, J.B., Chi, X.G., Wang, C.W., Hu, D.Q. 2008. Late Paleozoic Tectonic—sedimentation and petroleum resources in Northeastern China. Journal of Jilin University (Earth Science Edition) 38, 719725 (in Chinese with English abstract).
  • Zhang, Z.C., Mao, J.W., Wang, Y.B., Pirajno, F., Liu, J.L., Zhao, Z.D. 2010. Geochemistry and geochronology of the volcanic rocks associated with the Dong'an adularia-sericite epithermal gold deposit, Lesser Hinggan Range, Heilongjiang province, NE China: constraints on the metallogenesis. Ore Geology Reviews 37, 158174.
  • Zhang, X.Z., Ma, Y.X., Chi, X.G., Zhang, F.X., Sun, Y.W., Guo, Y., Zeng, Z. 2012. Discussion on Phanerozoic tectonic evolution in Northeastern China. Journal of Jilin University (Earth Science Edition) 42, 12691285 (in Chinese with English abstract).
  • Zhao, G.L., Yang, G.L., Fu, J.Y. 1989. Mesozoic Volcanic Rocks in the Central-southern Da Hinggan Ling. Beijing Press of Science and Technology: Beijing (in Chinese).
  • Zhao, X.X., Coe, R.S., Zhou, Y.X., Wu, H.R., Wang, J. 1990. New paleomagnetic results from northern China—collision and suturing with Siberia and Kazakhstan. Tectonophysics 181, 4381.
  • Zhao, H.L., Ren, Y.S., Hou, H.N., Wang, H., Ju, N., Chen, C., Li, C.H. 2013. Age and tectonic setting of the first orogenic gold deposit discovered in the Yanbian Region, NE China. International Geology Review 55, 882893.
  • Zhou, J.B., Wilde, S.A., Zhang, X.Z., Zhao, G.C., Zheng, C.Q., Wang, Y.J., Zhang, X.H. 2009. The onset of Pacific margin accretion in NE China: evidence from the Heilongjiang high-pressure metamorphic belt. Tectonophysics 478, 230246.
  • Zhou, J.B., Wilde, S.A., Zhao, G.C., Zhang, X.Z., Wang, H., Zeng, W.S. 2010a. Was the easternmost segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt derived from Gondwana or Siberia: an intriguing dilemma? Journal of Geodynamics 50, 300317.
  • Zhou, J.B., Wilde, S.A., Zhao, G.C., Zhang, X.Z., Zheng, C.Q., Wang, H. 2010b. New SHRIMP U–Pb zircon ages from the Heilongjiang high-pressure belt: constraints on the Mesozoic evolution of NE China. American Journal of Science 310, 10241053.
  • Zhou, J.B., Wilde, S.A., Zhao, G.C., Zhang, X.Z., Zheng, C.Q., Wang, H., Zeng, W.S. 2010c. Pan-African metamorphic and magmatic rocks of the Khanka Massif, NE China: further evidence regarding their affinity. Geological Magazine 147, 737749.
  • Zindler, A., Hart, S. 1986. Chemical geodynamics. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 14, 493571.
  • Zorin, Y.A. 1999. Geodynamics of the western part of the Mongolia–Okhotsk collisional belt, Trans-Baikal region (Russia) and Mongolia. Tectonophysics 306, 3356.
  • Zorin, Y.A., Mordvinova, V.V., Turutanov, E.K., Belichenko, B.G., Artemyev, A.A., Kosarev, G.L., Gao, S.S. 2002. Low seismic velocity layers in the Earth's crust beneath Eastern Siberia (Russia) and Central Mongolia: receiver function data and their possible geological implication. Tectonophysics 359, 307327.

Supporting Information

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. 1 Introduction
  4. 2 Geological Setting
  5. 3 Petrography
  6. 4 Analytical Methods
  7. 5 Results
  8. 6 Discussion
  9. 7 Conclusions
  10. Acknowledgements
  11. References
  12. Supporting Information
FilenameFormatSizeDescription
gj2576-sup-0001-Table_S1.pdfWord document211KSupporting info item

Please note: Wiley Blackwell is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied by the authors. Any queries (other than missing content) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article.