Hypoxia-activated microglial mediators of neuronal survival are differentially regulated by tetracyclines

Authors

  • Aaron Y. Lai,

    1. Neurochemical Research Unit, Department of Psychiatry and Centre for Neuroscience, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Kathryn G. Todd

    Corresponding author
    1. Neurochemical Research Unit, Department of Psychiatry and Centre for Neuroscience, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    • Neurochemical Research Unit, Department of Psychiatry, 1E7 WMC University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2K7
    Search for more papers by this author

Abstract

The tetracycline derivatives minocycline (MINO) and doxycycline (DOXY) have been shown to be neuroprotective in in vivo and in vitro models of stroke. This neuroprotection is thought to be due to the suppression of microglial activation. However, the specific molecular parameters in microglia of the tetracyclines' effect are not understood. We subjected cultured rat microglial and neuronal cells to in vitro hypoxia and examined the effects of MINO and DOXY pre-treatments. Our data showed that MINO and DOXY protect against hypoxia-induced neuronal death by a mechanism dependent on regulation of microglial factors, but likely unrelated to regulation of microglial proliferation/viability. Both MINO and DOXY suppressed the hypoxic activation of ED-1, a marker for microglial activation. Morphological analyses of hypoxic microglia using the microglial marker Iba1 revealed that treatment with MINO and DOXY caused a higher percentage of microglia to remain in a non-activated state. MINO suppressed the hypoxic upregulation of pro-inflammatory agents nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), while DOXY down-regulated only NO and IL-1β. In contrast, the hypoxic activation of pro-survival/neuroprotective microglial proteins, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), were unaffected by tetracycline treatments. Taken together, these results suggest that MINO and DOXY may provide neuroprotection against stroke by selectively down-regulating microglial toxic factors while maintaining functional pro-survival factors. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Ancillary