This review aims to summarize the current techniques to study myelination and remyelination in culture systems. We attempt to put these into historical context, and to identify the strengths and weaknesses of each approach, which vary depending on the experimental question to be tested. We discuss the difficulty and importance of quantification of myelination and in particular remyelination. Finally, we provide our predictions of how these techniques will and should develop in the future. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.