Gap junctions (GJs) are vital for oligodendrocyte survival and myelination. In order to examine how different stages of inflammatory demyelination affect oligodendrocyte GJs, we studied the expression of oligodendrocytic connexin32 (Cx32) and Cx47 and astrocytic Cx43 in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model of multiple sclerosis (MS) induced by recombinant myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein. EAE was characterized by remissions and relapses with demyelination and axonal loss. Formation of GJ plaques was quantified in relation to the lesions and in normal appearing white matter (NAWM). During acute EAE at 14 days postimmunization (dpi) both Cx47 and Cx32 GJs were severely reduced within and around lesions but also in the NAWM. Cx47 was localized intracellularly in oligodendrocytes while protein levels remained unchanged, and this redistribution coincided with the loss of Cx43 GJs in astrocytes. Cx47 and Cx32 expression increased during remyelination at 28 dpi but decreased again at 50 dpi in the relapsing phase. Oligodendrocyte GJs remained reduced even in NAWM, despite increased formation of Cx43 GJs toward lesions indicating astrogliosis. EAE induced in Cx32 knockout mice resulted in an exacerbated clinical course with more demyelination and axonal loss compared with wild-type EAE mice of the same backcross, despite similar degree of inflammation, and an overall milder loss of Cx47 and Cx43 GJs. Thus, EAE causes persistent impairment of both intra- and intercellular oligodendrocyte GJs even in the NAWM, which may be an important mechanism of MS progression. Furthermore, GJ deficient myelinated fibers appear more vulnerable to CNS inflammatory demyelination. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.