SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • American Psychiatry Association. 1994. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV). Washington, DC: American Psychiatry Association.
  • Balachandran S,Kim CN,Yeh WC,Mak TW,Bhalla K,Barber GN. 1998. Activation of the dsRNA-dependent protein kinase, PKR, induces apoptosis through FADD-mediated death signaling. EMBO J 17: 68886902.
  • Banks WA,Erickson MA. 2010. The blood-brain barrier and immune function and dysfunction. Neurobiol Dis 37: 2632.
  • Banks WA,Robinson SM. 2010. Minimal penetration of lipopolysaccharide across the murine blood-brain barrier. Brain Behav Immun 24: 102109.
  • Barrientos RM,Higgins EA,Biedenkapp JC,Sprunger DB,Wright-Hardesty KJ,Watkins LR,Rudy JW,Maier SF. 2006. Peripheral infection and aging interact to impair hippocampal memory consolidation. Neurobiol Aging 27: 723732.
  • Beg AA,Baltimore D. 1996. An essential role for NF-kappaB in preventing TNF-alpha-induced cell death. Science 274: 782784.
  • Birnbaum G,Kotilinek L,Miller SD,Raine CS,Gao YL,Lehmann PV,Gupta RS. 1998. Heat shock proteins and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. II: Environmental infection and extra-neuraxial inflammation alter the course of chronic relapsing encephalomyelitis. J Neuroimmunol 90: 149161.
  • Boutin H,LeFeuvre RA,Horai R,Asano M,Iwakura Y,Rothwell NJ. 2001. Role of IL-1alpha and IL-1beta in ischemic brain damage. J Neurosci 21: 55285534.
  • Brugg B,Dubreuil YL,Huber G,Wollman EE,Delhaye-Bouchaud N,Mariani J. 1995. Inflammatory processes induce beta-amyloid precursor protein changes in mouse brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92: 30323035.
  • Cao C,Matsumura K,Yamagata K,Watanabe Y. 1996. Endothelial cells of the rat brain vasculature express cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA in response to systemic interleukin-1 beta: A possible site of prostaglandin synthesis responsible for fever. Brain Res 733: 263272.
  • Carreno-Muller E,Herrera AJ,de Pablos RM,Tomas-Camardiel M,Venero JL,Cano J,Machado A. 2003. Thrombin induces in vivo degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neurones along with the activation of microglia. J Neurochem 84: 12011214.
  • Chapman TR,Barrientos RM,Ahrendsen JT,Maier SF,Patterson SL. 2010. Synaptic correlates of increased cognitive vulnerability with aging: Peripheral immune challenge and aging interact to disrupt theta-burst late-phase long-term potentiation in hippocampal area CA1. J Neurosci 30: 75987603.
  • Chen GY,Nunez G. 2010. Sterile inflammation: Sensing and reacting to damage. Nat Rev Immunol 10: 826837.
  • Chen H,Jacobs E,Schwarzschild MA,McCullough ML,Calle EE,Thun MJ,Ascherio A. 2005. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug use and the risk for Parkinson's disease. Ann Neurol 58: 963967.
  • Chen J,Buchanan JB,Sparkman NL,Godbout JP,Freund GG,Johnson RW. 2008. Neuroinflammation and disruption in working memory in aged mice after acute stimulation of the peripheral innate immune system. Brain Behav Immun 22: 301311.
  • Choi DK,Pennathur S,Perier C,Tieu K,Teismann P,Wu DC,Jackson-Lewis V,Vila M,Vonsattel JP,Heinecke JW,Przedborski S. 2005. Ablation of the inflammatory enzyme myeloperoxidase mitigates features of Parkinson's disease in mice. J Neurosci 25: 65946600.
  • Chou RC. 2010. Anti-TNF therapies for rheumatoid arthritis could reduce Alzheimer's risk. Amercican College of Rheumatology.
  • Cibelli M,Fidalgo AR,Terrando N,Ma D,Monaco C,Feldmann M,Takata M,Lever IJ,Nanchahal J,Fanselow MS,Maze M. 2010. Role of interleukin-1beta in postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Ann Neurol 68: 360368.
  • Cole M,McCusker J,Dendukuri N,Han L. 2003. The prognostic significance of subsyndromal delirium in elderly medical inpatients. J Am Geriatr Soc 51: 754760.
  • Colton CA,Mott RT,Sharpe H,Xu Q,Van Nostrand WE,Vitek MP. 2006. Expression profiles for macrophage alternative activation genes in AD and in mouse models of AD. J Neuroinflammation 3: 27.
  • Combrinck MI,Perry VH,Cunningham C. 2002. Peripheral infection evokes exaggerated sickness behaviour in pre-clinical murine prion disease. Neuroscience 112: 711.
  • Corona AW,Huang Y,O'Connor JC,Dantzer R,Kelley KW,Popovich PG,Godbout JP. 2010. Fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) deficiency sensitizes mice to the behavioral changes induced by lipopolysaccharide. J Neuroinflammation 7: 93.
  • Costello DA,Lyons A,Denieffe S,Browne TC,Cox FF,Lynch MA. 2011. Long term potentiation is impaired in membrane glycoprotein CD200-deficient mice: A role for Toll-like receptor activation. J Biol Chem 286: 3472234732.
  • Couch Y,Alvarez-Erviti L,Sibson NR,Wood MJ,Anthony DC. 2011. The acute inflammatory response to intranigral alpha-synuclein differs significantly from intranigral lipopolysaccharide and is exacerbated by peripheral inflammation. J Neuroinflammation 8: 166.
  • Cunningham C,Boche D,Perry VH. 2002. Transforming growth factor beta1, the dominant cytokine in murine prion disease: Influence on inflammatory cytokine synthesis and alteration of vascular extracellular matrix. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 28: 107119.
  • Cunningham C,Campion S,Lunnon K,Murray CL,Woods JF,Deacon RM,Rawlins JN,Perry VH. 2009. Systemic inflammation induces acute behavioral and cognitive changes and accelerates neurodegenerative disease. Biol Psychiatry 65: 304312.
  • Cunningham C,Skelly DT. 2012. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and cognitive function: Are prostaglandins at the heart of cognitive impairment in dementia and delirium? J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 7: 6073.
  • Cunningham C,Wilcockson DC,Boche D,Perry VH. 2005a. Comparison of inflammatory and acute-phase responses in the brain and peripheral organs of the ME7 model of prion disease. J Virol 79: 51745184.
  • Cunningham C,Wilcockson DC,Campion S,Lunnon K,Perry VH. 2005b. Central and systemic endotoxin challenges exacerbate the local inflammatory response and increase neuronal death during chronic neurodegeneration. J Neurosci 25: 92759284.
  • D'Mello C,Le T,Swain MG. 2009. Cerebral microglia recruit monocytes into the brain in response to tumor necrosis factoralpha signaling during peripheral organ inflammation. J Neurosci 29: 20892102.
  • de Pablos RM,Villaran RF,Arguelles S,Herrera AJ,Venero JL,Ayala A,Cano J,Machado A. 2006. Stress increases vulnerability to inflammation in the rat prefrontal cortex. J Neurosci 26: 57095719.
  • De Simone R,Ajmone-Cat MA,Carnevale D,Minghetti L. 2005. Activation of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor by nicotine selectively up-regulates cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2 in rat microglial cultures. J Neuroinflammation 2: 4.
  • De Simone R,Ajmone-Cat MA,Nicolini A,Minghetti L. 2002. Expression of phosphatidylserine receptor and down-regulation of pro-inflammatory molecule production by its natural ligand in rat microglial cultures. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 61: 237244.
  • Deininger MH,Bekure-Nemariam K,Trautmann K,Morgalla M,Meyermann R,Schluesener HJ. 2003. Cyclooxygenase-1 and −2 in brains of patients who died with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. J Mol Neurosci 20: 2530.
  • Depino AM,Earl C,Kaczmarczyk E,Ferrari C,Besedovsky H,del Rey A,Pitossi FJ,Oertel WH. 2003. Microglial activation with atypical proinflammatory cytokine expression in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. Eur J Neurosci 18: 27312742.
  • DiCarlo G,Wilcock D,Henderson D,Gordon M,Morgan D. 2001. Intrahippocampal LPS injections reduce Abeta load in APP+PS1 transgenic mice. Neurobiol Aging 22: 10071012.
  • Drake C,Boutin H,Jones MS,Denes A,McColl BW,Selvarajah JR,Hulme S,Georgiou RF,Hinz R,Gerhard A,Vail A,Prenant C,Julyan P,Maroy R,Brown G,Smigova A,Herholz K,Kassiou M,Crossman D,Francis S,Proctor SD,Russell JC,Hopkins SJ,Tyrrell PJ,Rothwell NJ,Allan SM. 2011. Brain inflammation is induced by co-morbidities and risk factors for stroke. Brain Behav Immun 25: 11131122.
  • Dunn N,Mullee M,Perry VH,Holmes C. 2005. Association between dementia and infectious disease: Evidence from a case-control study. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 19: 9194.
  • Ebert S,Goos M,Rollwagen L,Baake D,Zech WD,Esselmann H,Wiltfang J,Mollenhauer B,Schliebs R,Gerber J,Nau R. 2010. Recurrent systemic infections with Streptococcus pneumoniae do not aggravate the course of experimental neurodegenerative diseases. J Neurosci Res 88: 11241136.
  • Eisenbarth SC,Flavell RA. 2009. Innate instruction of adaptive immunity revisited: The inflammasome. EMBO Mol Med 1: 9298.
  • Ek M,Engblom D,Saha S,Blomqvist A,Jakobsson PJ,Ericsson-Dahlstrand A. 2001. Inflammatory response: pathway across the blood-brain barrier. Nature 410: 430431.
  • El Khoury J,Toft M,Hickman SE,Means TK,Terada K,Geula C,Luster AD. 2007. Ccr2 deficiency impairs microglial accumulation and accelerates progression of Alzheimer-like disease. Nat Med 13: 432438.
  • Erickson MA,Banks WA. 2011. Cytokine and chemokine responses in serum and brain after single and repeated injections of lipopolysaccharide: multiplex quantification with path analysis. Brain Behav Immun 25: 16371648.
  • Fadok VA,Bratton DL,Konowal A,Freed PW,Westcott JY,Henson PM. 1998. Macrophages that have ingested apoptotic cells in vitro inhibit proinflammatory cytokine production through autocrine/paracrine mechanisms involving TGF-beta, PGE2, and PAF. J Clin Invest 101: 890898.
  • Faggioni R,Fantuzzi G,Villa P,Buurman W,van Tits LJ,Ghezzi P. 1995. Independent down-regulation of central and peripheral tumor necrosis factor production as a result of lipopolysaccharide tolerance in mice. Infect Immun 63: 14731477.
  • Farrall AJ,Wardlaw JM. 2009. Blood-brain barrier: Ageing and microvascular disease--Systematic review and meta-analysis. Neurobiol Aging 30: 337352.
  • Felton LM,Cunningham C,Rankine EL,Waters S,Boche D,Perry VH. 2005. MCP-1 and murine prion disease: Separation of early behavioural dysfunction from overt clinical disease. Neurobiol Dis 20: 283295.
  • Fenn AM,Henry CJ,Huang Y,Dugan A,Godbout JP. 2011. Lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin (IL)-4 receptor-alpha expression and corresponding sensitivity to the M2 promoting effects of IL-4 are impaired in microglia of aged mice. Brain Behav Immun doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2011.10.003 [Epub ahead of print].
  • Field R,Campion S,Warren C,Murray C,Cunningham C. 2010. Systemic challenge with the TLR3 agonist poly I:C induces amplified IFNalpha/beta and IL-1beta responses in the diseased brain and exacerbates chronic neurodegeneration. Brain Behav Immun 24: 9961007.
  • Field RH,Gossen A,Cunningham C. 2012. Prior pathology in the basal forebrain cholinergic system predisposes to inflammation induced working memory deficits: reconciling inflammatory and cholinergic hypotheses of delirium. J Neurosci 32: 62886294.
  • Fong TG,Jones RN,Shi P,Marcantonio ER,Yap L,Rudolph JL,Yang FM,Kiely DK,Inouye SK. 2009. Delirium accelerates cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease. Neurology 72: 15701575.
  • Franciosi S,Ryu JK,Shim Y,Hill A,Connolly C,Hayden MR,McLarnon JG,Leavitt BR. 2012. Age-dependent neurovascular abnormalities and altered microglial morphology in the YAC128 mouse model of Huntington disease. Neurobiol Dis 45: 438449.
  • Frank MG,Thompson BM,Watkins LR,Maier SF. 2012. Glucocorticoids mediate stress-induced priming of microglial pro-inflammatory responses. Brain Behav Immun 26: 337345.
  • Frank-Cannon TC,Tran T,Ruhn KA,Martinez TN,Hong J,Marvin M,Hartley M,Trevino I,O'Brien DE,Casey B,Goldberg MS,Tansey MG. 2008. Parkin deficiency increases vulnerability to inflammation-related nigral degeneration. J Neurosci 28: 1082510834.
  • Fuentes ME,Durham SK,Swerdel MR,Lewin AC,Barton DS,Megill JR,Bravo R,Lira SA. 1995. Controlled recruitment of monocytes and macrophages to specific organs through transgenic expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. J Immunol 155: 57695776.
  • Gao HM,Zhang F,Zhou H,Kam W,Wilson B,Hong JS. 2011a. Neuroinflammation and alpha-synuclein dysfunction potentiate each other, driving chronic progression of neurodegeneration in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Environ Health Perspect 119: 807814.
  • Gao HM,Zhou H,Zhang F,Wilson BC,Kam W,Hong JS. 2011b. HMGB1 acts on microglia Mac1 to mediate chronic neuroinflammation that drives progressive neurodegeneration. J Neurosci 31: 10811092.
  • Godbout JP,Chen J,Abraham J,Richwine AF,Berg BM,Kelley KW,Johnson RW. 2005. Exaggerated neuroinflammation and sickness behavior in aged mice following activation of the peripheral innate immune system. FASEB J 19: 13291331.
  • Godbout JP,Moreau M,Lestage J,Chen J,Sparkman NL,O' Connor J,Castanon N,Kelley KW,Dantzer R,Johnson RW. 2008. Aging exacerbates depressive-like behavior in mice in response to activation of the peripheral innate immune system. Neuropsychopharmacology 33: 23412351.
  • Grathwohl SA,Kalin RE,Bolmont T,Prokop S,Winkelmann G,Kaeser SA,Odenthal J,Radde R,Eldh T,Gandy S,Aguzzi A,Staufenbiel M,Mathews PM,Wolburg H,Heppner FL,Jucker M. 2009. Formation and maintenance of Alzheimer's disease beta-amyloid plaques in the absence of microglia. Nat Neurosci 12: 13611363.
  • Greer GG,Rietschel ET. 1978. Lipid A-induced tolerance and hyperreactivity to hypothermia in mice. Infect Immun 19: 357368.
  • Griffin DE,Wesselingh SL,McArthur JC. 1994. Elevated central nervous system prostaglandins in human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia. Ann Neurol 35: 592597.
  • Halle A,Hornung V,Petzold GC,Stewart CR,Monks BG,Reinheckel T,Fitzgerald KA,Latz E,Moore KJ,Golenbock DT. 2008. The NALP3 inflammasome is involved in the innate immune response to amyloid-beta. Nat Immunol 9: 857865.
  • Hauss-Wegrzyniak B,Dobrzanski P,Stoehr JD,Wenk GL. 1998. Chronic neuroinflammation in rats reproduces components of the neurobiology of Alzheimer's disease. Brain Res 780: 294303.
  • He Y,Le WD,Appel SH. 2002. Role of Fcgamma receptors in nigral cell injury induced by Parkinson disease immunoglobulin injection into mouse substantia nigra. Exp Neurol 176: 322327.
  • Hein AM,Stutzman DL,Bland ST,Barrientos RM,Watkins LR,Rudy JW,Maier SF. 2007. Prostaglandins are necessary and sufficient to induce contextual fear learning impairments after interleukin-1 beta injections into the dorsal hippocampus. Neuroscience 150: 754763.
  • Heneka MT,Nadrigny F,Regen T,Martinez-Hernandez A,Dumitrescu-Ozimek L,Terwel D,Jardanhazi-Kurutz D,Walter J,Kirchhoff F,Hanisch UK,Kummer MP. 2010. Locus ceruleus controls Alzheimer's disease pathology by modulating microglial functions through norepinephrine. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107: 60586063.
  • Henkel JS,Engelhardt JI,Siklos L,Simpson EP,Kim SH,Pan T,Goodman JC,Siddique T,Beers DR,Appel SH. 2004. Presence of dendritic cells, MCP-1, and activated microglia/macrophages in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis spinal cord tissue. Ann Neurol 55: 221235.
  • Herber DL,Roth LM,Wilson D,Wilson N,Mason JE,Morgan D,Gordon MN. 2004. Time-dependent reduction in Abeta levels after intracranial LPS administration in APP transgenic mice. Exp Neurol 190: 245253.
  • Herrera AJ,Castano A,Venero JL,Cano J,Machado A. 2000. The single intranigral injection of LPS as a new model for studying the selective effects of inflammatory reactions on dopaminergic system. Neurobiol Dis 7: 429447.
  • Hirsch EC,Hunot S. 2009. Neuroinflammation in Parkinson's disease: A target for neuroprotection? Lancet Neurol 8: 382397.
  • Holmes C,Boche D,Wilkinson D,Yadegarfar G,Hopkins V,Bayer A,Jones RW,Bullock R,Love S,Neal JW,Zotova E,Nicoll JA. 2008. Long-term effects of Abeta42 immunisation in Alzheimer's disease: Follow-up of a randomised, placebo-controlled phase I trial. Lancet 372: 216223.
  • Holmes C,Cotterell D. 2009. Role of infection in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease: Implications for treatment. CNS Drugs 23: 9931002.
  • Holmes C,Cunningham C,Zotova E,Woolford J,Dean C,Kerr S,Culliford D,Perry VH. 2009. Systemic inflammation and disease progression in Alzheimer's disease. Neurology 73: 768774.
  • Holmes C,El-Okl M,Williams AL,Cunningham C,Wilcockson D,Perry VH. 2003. Systemic infection, interleukin 1beta, and cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 74: 788789.
  • Holmes C,Lovestone S. 2003. Long-term cognitive and functional decline in late onset Alzheimer's disease: Therapeutic implications. Age Ageing 32: 200204.
  • Hooper C,Taylor DL,Pocock JM. 2005. Pure albumin is a potent trigger of calcium signalling and proliferation in microglia but not macrophages or astrocytes. J Neurochem 92: 13631376.
  • Hoozemans JJ,Rozemuller AJ,Janssen I,De Groot CJ,Veerhuis R,Eikelenboom P. 2001. Cyclooxygenase expression in microglia and neurons in Alzheimer's disease and control brain. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 101: 28.
  • Horsburgh K,McCulloch J,Nilsen M,Roses AD,Nicoll JA. 2000. Increased neuronal damage and apoE immunoreactivity in human apolipoprotein E, E4 isoform-specific, transgenic mice after global cerebral ischaemia. Eur J Neurosci 12: 43094317.
  • Hughes MM,Field RH,Perry VH,Murray CL,Cunningham C. 2010. Microglia in the degenerating brain are capable of phagocytosis of beads and of apoptotic cells, but do not efficiently remove PrPSc, even upon LPS stimulation. Glia 58: 20172030.
  • Hunot S,Boissiere F,Faucheux B,Brugg B,Mouatt-Prigent A,Agid Y,Hirsch EC. 1996. Nitric oxide synthase and neuronal vulnerability in Parkinson's disease. Neuroscience 72: 355363.
  • Jang H,Boltz D,Sturm-Ramirez K,Shepherd KR,Jiao Y,Webster R,Smeyne RJ. 2009. Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus can enter the central nervous system and induce neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106: 1406314068.
  • Jiang Z,Belforte JE,Lu Y,Yabe Y,Pickel J,Smith CB,Je HS,Lu B,Nakazawa K. 2010. eIF2alpha Phosphorylation-dependent translation in CA1 pyramidal cells impairs hippocampal memory consolidation without affecting general translation. J Neurosci 30: 25822594.
  • Jimenez S,Baglietto-Vargas D,Caballero C,Moreno-Gonzalez I,Torres M,Sanchez-Varo R,Ruano D,Vizuete M,Gutierrez A,Vitorica J. 2008. Inflammatory response in the hippocampus of PS1M146L/APP751SL mouse model of Alzheimer's disease: Age-dependent switch in the microglial phenotype from alternative to classic. J Neurosci 28: 1165011661.
  • Johnson WJ,Marino PA,Schreiber RD,Adams DO. 1983. Sequential activation of murine mononuclear phagocytes for tumor cytolysis: Differential expression of markers by macrophages in the several stages of development. J Immunol 131: 10381043.
  • Jones C,Griffiths RD,Slater T,Benjamin KS,Wilson S. 2006. Significant cognitive dysfunction in non-delirious patients identified during and persisting following critical illness. Intensive Care Med 32: 923926.
  • Kamer AR,Craig RG,Pirraglia E,Dasanayake AP,Norman RG,Boylan RJ,Nehorayoff A,Glodzik L,Brys M,de Leon MJ. 2009. TNF-alpha and antibodies to periodontal bacteria discriminate between Alzheimer's disease patients and normal subjects. J Neuroimmunol 216: 9297.
  • Khorooshi R,Babcock AA,Owens T. 2008. NF-kappaB-driven STAT2 and CCL2 expression in astrocytes in response to brain injury. J Immunol 181: 72847291.
  • Kitazawa M,Oddo S,Yamasaki TR,Green KN,LaFerla FM. 2005. Lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation exacerbates tau pathology by a cyclin-dependent kinase 5-mediated pathway in a transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease. J Neurosci 25: 88438853.
  • Kiyota T,Yamamoto M,Xiong H,Lambert MP,Klein WL,Gendelman HE,Ransohoff RM,Ikezu T. 2009. CCL2 accelerates microglia-mediated Abeta oligomer formation and progression of neurocognitive dysfunction. PLoS One 4: e6197.
  • Konsman JP,Parnet P,Dantzer R. 2002. Cytokine-induced sickness behaviour: Mechanisms and implications. Trends Neurosci 25: 154159.
  • Kranich J,Krautler NJ,Falsig J,Ballmer B,Li S,Hutter G,Schwarz P,Moos R,Julius C,Miele G,Aguzzi A. 2010. Engulfment of cerebral apoptotic bodies controls the course of prion disease in a mouse strain-dependent manner. J Exp Med 207: 22712281.
  • Kyrkanides S,Tallents RH,Miller JN,Olschowka ME,Johnson R,Yang M,Olschowka JA,Brouxhon SM,O'Banion MK. 2011. Osteoarthritis accelerates and exacerbates Alzheimer's disease pathology in mice. J Neuroinflammation 8: 112.
  • L'Episcopo F,Tirolo C,Testa N,Caniglia S,Morale MC,Impagnatiello F,Marchetti B. 2011. Switching the microglial harmful phenotype promotes lifelong restoration of subtantia nigra dopaminergic neurons from inflammatory neurodegeneration in aged mice. Rejuvenation Res 14: 411424.
  • Langston JW,Forno LS,Tetrud J,Reeves AG,Kaplan JA,Karluk D. 1999. Evidence of active nerve cell degeneration in the substantia nigra of humans years after 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine exposure. Ann Neurol 46: 598605.
  • Lee J,Chan SL,Mattson MP. 2002. Adverse effect of a Presenilin-1 mutation in microglia results in enhanced nitric oxide and inflammatory cytokine responses to immune challenge in the brain. Neuromolecular Med 2: 2945.
  • Lee JW,Lee YK,Yuk DY,Choi DY,Ban SB,Oh KW,Hong JT. 2008. Neuro-inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide causes cognitive impairment through enhancement of beta-amyloid generation. J Neuroinflammation 5: 37.
  • Liang X,Wang Q,Hand T,Wu L,Breyer RM,Montine TJ,Andreasson K. 2005. Deletion of the prostaglandin E2 EP2 receptor reduces oxidative damage and amyloid burden in a model of Alzheimer's disease. J Neurosci 25: 1018010187.
  • Lo KC,Geddes JF,Daniels RS,Oxford JS. 2003. Lack of detection of influenza genes in archived formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded brain samples of encephalitis lethargica patients from 1916 to 1920. Virchows Arch 442: 591596.
  • Loeb MB,Molloy D,Smieja M,Standish T,Goldsmith CH,Mahony J,Smith S,Borrie M,Decoteau E,Davidson W,McDougall A,Gnarpe J,O'Donnell M,Chernesky M. 2004. A randomized, controlled trial of doxycycline and rifampin for patients with Alzheimer's DISEASE. J Am Geriatr Soc 52: 381387.
  • Lunnon K,Teeling JL,Tutt AL,Cragg MS,Glennie MJ,Perry VH. 2011. Systemic inflammation modulates Fc receptor expression on microglia during chronic neurodegeneration. J Immunol 186: 72157224.
  • Lyons A,Downer EJ,Crotty S,Nolan YM,Mills KH,Lynch MA. 2007. CD200 ligand receptor interaction modulates microglial activation in vivo and in vitro: A role for IL-4. J Neurosci 27: 83098313.
  • MacLullich AM,Beaglehole A,Hall RJ,Meagher DJ. 2009. Delirium and long-term cognitive impairment. Int Rev Psychiatry 21: 3042.
  • McAlpine FE,Lee JK,Harms AS,Ruhn KA,Blurton-Jones M,Hong J,Das P,Golde TE,LaFerla FM,Oddo S,Blesch A,Tansey MG. 2009. Inhibition of soluble TNF signaling in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease prevents pre-plaque amyloid-associated neuropathology. Neurobiol Dis 34: 163177.
  • McClean PL,Parthsarathy V,Faivre E,Holscher C. 2011. The diabetes drug liraglutide prevents degenerative processes in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. J Neurosci 31: 65876594.
  • McColl BW,Rothwell NJ,Allan SM. 2007. Systemic inflammatory stimulus potentiates the acute phase and CXC chemokine responses to experimental stroke and exacerbates brain damage via interleukin-1- and neutrophil-dependent mechanisms. J Neurosci 27: 44034412.
  • McGeer PL,McGeer EG. 2002. The possible role of complement activation in Alzheimer disease. Trends Mol Med 8: 519523.
  • Meissner F,Molawi K,Zychlinsky A. 2010. Mutant superoxide dismutase 1-induced IL-1beta accelerates ALS pathogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107: 1304613050.
  • Micheau O,Tschopp J. 2003. Induction of TNF receptor I-mediated apoptosis via two sequential signaling complexes. Cell 114: 181190.
  • Mildner A,Schlevogt B,Kierdorf K,Bottcher C,Erny D,Kummer MP,Quinn M,Bruck W,Bechmann I,Heneka MT,Priller J,Prinz M. 2011. Distinct and non-redundant roles of microglia and myeloid subsets in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease. J Neurosci 31: 1115911171.
  • Minghetti L,Greco A,Cardone F,Puopolo M,Ladogana A,Almonti S,Cunningham C,Perry VH,Pocchiari M,Levi G. 2000. Increased brain synthesis of prostaglandin E2 and F2-isoprostane in human and experimental transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 59: 866871.
  • Moreno B,Jukes JP,Vergara-Irigaray N,Errea O,Villoslada P,Perry VH,Newman TA. 2011. Systemic inflammation induces axon injury during brain inflammation. Ann Neurol 70: 932942.
  • Mosser DM,Edwards JP. 2008. Exploring the full spectrum of macrophage activation. Nat Rev Immunol 8: 958969.
  • Munhoz CD,Sorrells SF,Caso JR,Scavone C,Sapolsky RM. 2010. Glucocorticoids exacerbate lipopolysaccharide-induced signaling in the frontal cortex and hippocampus in a dose-dependent manner. J Neurosci 30: 1369013698.
  • Murray C,Sanderson DJ,Barkus C,Deacon RM,Rawlins JN,Bannerman DM,Cunningham C. 2012. Systemic inflammation induces acute working memory deficits in the primed brain: Relevance for delirium. Neurobiol Aging 33: 603616.
  • Murray CL,Skelly DT,Cunningham C. 2011. Exacerbation of CNS inflammation and neurodegeneration by systemic LPS treatment is independent of circulating IL-1beta and IL-6. J Neuroinflammation 8: 50.
  • Naert G,Rivest S. 2012. Hematopoietic CC-chemokine receptor 2-(CCR2) competent cells are protective for the cognitive impairments and amyloid pathology in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Mol Med 18: 297313.
  • Neher JJ,Neniskyte U,Zhao JW,Bal-Price A,Tolkovsky AM,Brown GC. 2011. Inhibition of microglial phagocytosis is sufficient to prevent inflammatory neuronal death. J Immunol 186: 49734983.
  • Nguyen MD,D'Aigle T,Gowing G,Julien JP,Rivest S. 2004. Exacerbation of motor neuron disease by chronic stimulation of innate immunity in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. J Neurosci 24: 13401349.
  • Nicoll JA,Wilkinson D,Holmes C,Steart P,Markham H,Weller RO. 2003. Neuropathology of human Alzheimer disease after immunization with amyloid-beta peptide: A case report. Nat Med 9: 448452.
  • Nishioku T,Dohgu S,Takata F,Eto T,Ishikawa N,Kodama KB,Nakagawa S,Yamauchi A,Kataoka Y. 2009. Detachment of brain pericytes from the basal lamina is involved in disruption of the blood-brain barrier caused by lipopolysaccharide-induced sepsis in mice. Cell Mol Neurobiol 29: 309316.
  • O'Sullivan JB,Ryan KM,Curtin NM,Harkin A,Connor TJ. 2009. Noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors limit neuroinflammation in rat cortex following a systemic inflammatory challenge: Implications for depression and neurodegeneration. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 12: 687699.
  • Ohmoto Y,Wood MJ,Charlton HM,Kajiwara K,Perry VH,Wood KJ. 1999. Variation in the immune response to adenoviral vectors in the brain: influence of mouse strain, environmental conditions and priming. Gene Ther 6: 471481.
  • Ojo B,Rezaie P,Gabbott PL,Davies H,Colyer F,Cowley TR,Lynch M,Stewart MG. 2011. Age-related changes in the hippocampus (loss of synaptophysin and glial-synaptic interaction) are modified by systemic treatment with an NCAM-derived peptide, FGL. Brain Behav Immun. doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2011.09.013 [Epub ahead of print].
  • Okun E,Mattson MP,Arumugam TV. 2010. Involvement of Fc receptors in disorders of the central nervous system. Neuromolecular Med 12: 164178.
  • Paigen B,Morrow A,Brandon C,Mitchell D,Holmes P. 1985. Variation in susceptibility to atherosclerosis among inbred strains of mice. Atherosclerosis 57: 6573.
  • Palin K,Cunningham C,Forse P,Perry VH,Platt N. 2008. Systemic inflammation switches the inflammatory cytokine profile in CNS Wallerian degeneration. Neurobiol Dis 30: 1929.
  • Parker LC,Luheshi GN,Rothwell NJ,Pinteaux E. 2002. IL-1 beta signalling in glial cells in wildtype and IL-1RI deficient mice. Br J Pharmacol 136: 312320.
  • Peress NS,Fleit HB,Perillo E,Kuljis R,Pezzullo C. 1993. Identification of Fc gamma RI, II and III on normal human brain ramified microglia and on microglia in senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease. J Neuroimmunol 48: 7179.
  • Perry VH,Cunningham C,Holmes C. 2007. Systemic infections and inflammation affect chronic neurodegeneration. Nat Rev Immunol 7: 161167.
  • Piers TM,Heales SJ,Pocock JM. 2011. Positive allosteric modulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 down-regulates fibrinogen-activated microglia providing neuronal protection. Neurosci Lett 505: 140145.
  • Ponomarev ED,Maresz K,Tan Y,Dittel BN. 2007. CNS-derived interleukin-4 is essential for the regulation of autoimmune inflammation and induces a state of alternative activation in microglial cells. J Neurosci 27: 1071410721.
  • Pott-Godoy MC,Tarelli R,Ferrari CC,Sarchi MI,Pitossi FJ. 2008. Central and systemic IL-1 exacerbates neurodegeneration and motor symptoms in a model of Parkinson's disease. Brain 131: 18801894.
  • Qin L,Wu X,Block ML,Liu Y,Breese GR,Hong JS,Knapp DJ,Crews FT. 2007. Systemic LPS causes chronic neuroinflammation and progressive neurodegeneration. Glia 55: 453462.
  • Ramaglia V,Hughes TR,Donev RM,Ruseva MM,Wu X,Huitinga I,Baas F,Neal JW,Morgan BP. 2012. C3-dependent mechanism of microglial priming relevant to multiple sclerosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109: 965970.
  • Ransohoff RM,Perry VH. 2009. Microglial physiology: Unique stimuli, specialized responses. Annu Rev Immunol 27: 119145.
  • Ravenholt RT,Foege WH. 1982. 1918 influenza, encephalitis lethargica, parkinsonism. Lancet 2: 860864.
  • Reichwald J,Danner S,Wiederhold KH,Staufenbiel M. 2009. Expression of complement system components during aging and amyloid deposition in APP transgenic mice. J Neuroinflammation 6: 35.
  • Rogers J,Cooper NR,Webster S,Schultz J,McGeer PL,Styren SD,Civin WH,Brachova L,Bradt B,Ward P,Lieberburg I. 1992. Complement activation by beta-amyloid in Alzheimer disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89: 1001610020.
  • Ros-Bernal F,Hunot S,Herrero MT,Parnadeau S,Corvol JC,Lu L,Alvarez-Fischer D,Carrillo-de Sauvage MA,Saurini F,Coussieu C,Kinugawa K,Prigent A,Hoglinger G,Hamon M,Tronche F,Hirsch EC,Vyas S. 2011. Microglial glucocorticoid receptors play a pivotal role in regulating dopaminergic neurodegeneration in parkinsonism. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108: 66326637.
  • Ruiz-Valdepenas L,Martinez-Orgado JA,Benito C,Millan A,Tolon RM,Romero J. 2011. Cannabidiol reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced vascular changes and inflammation in the mouse brain: An intravital microscopy study. J Neuroinflammation 8: 5.
  • Saijo K,Winner B,Carson CT,Collier JG,Boyer L,Rosenfeld MG,Gage FH,Glass CK. 2009. A Nurr1/CoREST pathway in microglia and astrocytes protects dopaminergic neurons from inflammation-induced death. Cell 137: 4759.
  • Salloway S,Sperling R,Gilman S,Fox NC,Blennow K,Raskind M,Sabbagh M,Honig LS,Doody R,van Dyck CH,Mulnard R,Barakos J,Gregg KM,Liu E,Lieberburg I,Schenk D,Black R,Grundman M. 2009. A phase 2 multiple ascending dose trial of bapineuzumab in mild to moderate Alzheimer disease. Neurology 73: 20612070.
  • Schenk D,Barbour R,Dunn W,Gordon G,Grajeda H,Guido T,Hu K,Huang J,Johnson-Wood K,Khan K,Kholodenko D,Lee M,Liao Z,Lieberburg I,Motter R,Mutter L,Soriano F,Shopp G,Vasquez N,Vandevert C,Walker S,Wogulis M,Yednock T,Games D,Seubert P. 1999. Immunization with amyloid-beta attenuates Alzheimer-disease-like pathology in the PDAPP mouse. Nature 400: 173177.
  • Scholtzova H,Kascsak RJ,Bates KA,Boutajangout A,Kerr DJ,Meeker HC,Mehta PD,Spinner DS,Wisniewski T. 2009. Induction of toll-like receptor 9 signaling as a method for ameliorating Alzheimer's disease-related pathology. J Neurosci 29: 18461854.
  • Schwab C,Klegeris A,McGeer PL. 2010. Inflammation in transgenic mouse models of neurodegenerative disorders. Biochim Biophys Acta 1802: 889902.
  • Semmler A,Frisch C,Debeir T,Ramanathan M,Okulla T,Klockgether T,Heneka MT. 2007. Long-term cognitive impairment, neuronal loss and reduced cortical cholinergic innervation after recovery from sepsis in a rodent model. Exp Neurol 204: 733740.
  • Semmler A,Hermann S,Mormann F,Weberpals M,Paxian SA,Okulla T,Schafers M,Kummer MP,Klockgether T,Heneka MT. 2008. Sepsis causes neuroinflammation and concomitant decrease of cerebral metabolism. J Neuroinflammation 5: 38.
  • Semmler A,Okulla T,Sastre M,Dumitrescu-Ozimek L,Heneka MT. 2005. Systemic inflammation induces apoptosis with variable vulnerability of different brain regions. J Chem Neuroanat 30: 144157.
  • Serres S,Anthony DC,Jiang Y,Broom KA,Campbell SJ,Tyler DJ,van Kasteren SI,Davis BG,Sibson NR. 2009. Systemic inflammatory response reactivates immune-mediated lesions in rat brain. J Neurosci 29: 48204828.
  • Shaftel SS,Kyrkanides S,Olschowka JA,Miller JN,Johnson RE,O'Banion MK. 2007. Sustained hippocampal IL-1 beta overexpression mediates chronic neuroinflammation and ameliorates Alzheimer plaque pathology. J Clin Invest 117: 15951604.
  • Sheng JG,Bora SH,Xu G,Borchelt DR,Price DL,Koliatsos VE. 2003. Lipopolysaccharide-induced-neuroinflammation increases intracellular accumulation of amyloid precursor protein and amyloid beta peptide in APPswe transgenic mice. Neurobiol Dis 14: 133145.
  • Shi J,Johansson J,Woodling NS,Wang Q,Montine TJ,Andreasson K. 2010. The prostaglandin E2 E-prostanoid 4 receptor exerts anti-inflammatory effects in brain innate immunity. J Immunol 184: 72077218.
  • Shie FS,Breyer RM,Montine TJ. 2005. Microglia lacking E prostanoid receptor subtype 2 have enhanced Abeta phagocytosis yet lack Abeta-activated neurotoxicity. Am J Pathol 166: 11631172.
  • Simard AR,Soulet D,Gowing G,Julien JP,Rivest S. 2006. Bone marrow-derived microglia play a critical role in restricting senile plaque formation in Alzheimer's disease. Neuron 49: 489502.
  • Singh A.K,Jiang Y. 2004. How does peripheral lipopolysaccharide induce gene expression in the brain of rats? Toxicology 201: 197207.
  • Sly LM,Krzesicki RF,Brashler JR,Buhl AE,McKinley DD,Carter DB,Chin JE. 2001. Endogenous brain cytokine mRNA and inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide are elevated in the Tg2576 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Brain Res Bull 56: 581588.
  • Sriram K,Miller DB,O'Callaghan JP. 2006. Minocycline attenuates microglial activation but fails to mitigate striatal dopaminergic neurotoxicity: Role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha. J Neurochem 96: 706718.
  • Stobart MJ,Parchaliuk D,Simon SL,Lemaistre J,Lazar J,Rubenstein R,Knox JD. 2007. Differential expression of interferon responsive genes in rodent models of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy disease. Mol Neurodegener 2: 5.
  • Strandberg TE,Pitkala KH,Linnavuori K,Tilvis RS. 2004. Cognitive impairment and infectious burden in the elderly. Arch Gerontol Geriatr Suppl 9: 419423.
  • Strandberg TE,Pitkala KH,Linnavuori KH,Tilvis RS. 2003. Impact of viral and bacterial burden on cognitive impairment in elderly persons with cardiovascular diseases. Stroke 34: 21262131.
  • Streit WJ,Walter SA,Pennell NA. 1999. Reactive microgliosis. Prog Neurobiol 57: 563581.
  • Suo Z,Wu M,Ameenuddin S,Anderson HE,Zoloty JE,Citron BA,Andrade-Gordon P,Festoff BW. 2002. Participation of protease-activated receptor-1 in thrombin-induced microglial activation. J Neurochem 80: 655666.
  • Szekely CA,Green RC,Breitner JC,Ostbye T,Beiser AS,Corrada MM,Dodge HH,Ganguli M,Kawas CH,Kuller LH,Psaty BM,Resnick SM,Wolf PA,Zonderman AB,Welsh-Bohmer KA,Zandi PP. 2008. No advantage of A beta 42-lowering NSAIDs for prevention of Alzheimer dementia in six pooled cohort studies. Neurology 70: 22912298.
  • Taepavarapruk P,Song C. 2010. Reductions of acetylcholine release and nerve growth factor expression are correlated with memory impairment induced by interleukin-1beta administrations: Effects of omega-3 fatty acid EPA treatment. J Neurochem 112: 10541064.
  • Takahashi K,Rochford CD,Neumann H. 2005. Clearance of apoptotic neurons without inflammation by microglial triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2. J Exp Med 201: 647657.
  • Teeling JL,Cunningham C,Newman TA,Perry VH. 2010. The effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents on behavioural changes and cytokine production following systemic inflammation: Implications for a role of COX-1. Brain Behav Immun 24: 409419.
  • Thornton P,McColl BW,Greenhalgh A,Denes A,Allan SM,Rothwell NJ. 2010. Platelet interleukin-1alpha drives cerebrovascular inflammation. Blood 115: 36323639.
  • Tilvis RS,Kahonen-Vare MH,Jolkkonen J,Valvanne J,Pitkala KH,Strandberg TE. 2004. Predictors of cognitive decline and mortality of aged people over a 10-year period. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 59: 268274.
  • Tracey KJ. 2009. Reflex control of immunity. Nat Rev Immunol 9: 418428.
  • Tran TA,Nguyen AD,Chang J,Goldberg MS,Lee JK,Tansey MG. 2011. Lipopolysaccharide and tumor necrosis factor regulate Parkin expression via nuclear factor-kappa B. PLoS One 6: e23660.
  • Ulvestad E,Williams K,Matre R,Nyland H,Olivier A,Antel J. 1994a. Fc receptors for IgG on cultured human microglia mediate cytotoxicity and phagocytosis of antibody-coated targets. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 53: 2736.
  • Ulvestad E,Williams K,Vedeler C,Antel J,Nyland H,Mork S,Matre R. 1994b. Reactive microglia in multiple sclerosis lesions have an increased expression of receptors for the Fc part of IgG. J Neurol Sci 121: 125131.
  • Vadiveloo PK,Vairo G,Hertzog P,Kola I,Hamilton JA. 2000. Role of type I interferons during macrophage activation by lipopolysaccharide. Cytokine 12: 16391646.
  • Valente T,Mancera P,Tusell JM,Serratosa J,Saura J. 2011. C/EBPβ expression in activated microglia in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Neurobiol Aging. doi:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2011.09.019 [Epub ahead of print].
  • van Gool WA,van de Beek D,Eikelenboom P. 2010. Systemic infection and delirium: When cytokines and acetylcholine collide. Lancet 375: 773775.
  • Verreault R,Laurin D,Lindsay J,De Serres G. 2001. Past exposure to vaccines and subsequent risk of Alzheimer's disease. CMAJ 165: 14951498.
  • Villaran RF,Espinosa-Oliva AM,Sarmiento M,De Pablos RM,Arguelles S,Delgado-Cortes MJ,Sobrino V,Van Rooijen N,Venero JL,Herrera AJ,Cano J,Machado A. 2010. Ulcerative colitis exacerbates lipopolysaccharide-induced damage to the nigral dopaminergic system: Potential risk factor in Parkinson's disease. J Neurochem 114: 16871700.
  • Villeda SA,Luo J,Mosher KI,Zou B,Britschgi M,Bieri G,Stan TM,Fainberg N,Ding Z,Eggel A,Lucin KM,Czirr E,Park JS,Couillard-Despres S,Aigner L,Li G,Peskind ER,Kaye JA,Quinn JF,Galasko DR,Xie XS,Rando TA,Wyss-Coray T. 2011. The ageing systemic milieu negatively regulates neurogenesis and cognitive function. Nature 477: 9094.
  • Vlad SC,Miller DR,Kowall NW,Felson DT. 2008. Protective effects of NSAIDs on the development of Alzheimer disease. Neurology 70: 16721677.
  • Walsh DT,Betmouni S,Perry VH. 2001. Absence of detectable IL-1beta production in murine prion disease: A model of chronic neurodegeneration. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 60: 173182.
  • Weberpals M,Hermes M,Hermann S,Kummer MP,Terwel D,Semmler A,Berger M,Schafers M,Heneka MT. 2009. NOS2 gene deficiency protects from sepsis-induced long-term cognitive deficits. J Neurosci 29: 1417714184.
  • Weggen S,Eriksen JL,Das P,Sagi SA,Wang R,Pietrzik CU,Findlay KA,Smith TE,Murphy MP,Bulter T,Kang DE,Marquez-Sterling N,Golde TE,Koo EH. 2001. A subset of NSAIDs lower amyloidogenic Abeta42 independently of cyclooxygenase activity. Nature 414: 212216.
  • WHO. 1992. The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders. Diagnostic criteria for research. Geneva: World Health Organisation.
  • Wisniewski HM,Barcikowska M,Kida E. 1991. Phagocytosis of beta/A4 amyloid fibrils of the neuritic neocortical plaques. Acta Neuropathol 81: 588590.
  • Wispelwey B,Lesse AJ,Hansen EJ,Scheld WM. 1988. Haemophilus influenzae lipopolysaccharide-induced blood brain barrier permeability during experimental meningitis in the rat. J Clin Invest 82: 13391346.
  • Witlox J,Eurelings LS,de Jonghe JF,Kalisvaart KJ,Eikelenboom P,van Gool WA. 2010. Delirium in elderly patients and the risk of postdischarge mortality, institutionalization, and dementia: A meta-analysis. JAMA 304: 443451.
  • Wu DC,Jackson-Lewis V,Vila M,Tieu K,Teismann P,Vadseth C,Choi DK,Ischiropoulos H,Przedborski S. 2002. Blockade of microglial activation is neuroprotective in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine mouse model of Parkinson disease. J Neurosci 22: 17631771.
  • Wynne AM,Henry CJ,Huang Y,Cleland A,Godbout JP. 2010. Protracted downregulation of CX3CR1 on microglia of aged mice after lipopolysaccharide challenge. Brain Behav Immun 24: 11901201.
  • Yaffe K,Kanaya A,Lindquist K,Simonsick EM,Harris T,Shorr RI,Tylavsky FA,Newman AB. 2004. The metabolic syndrome, inflammation, and risk of cognitive decline. JAMA 292: 22372242.
  • Yermakova AV,Rollins J,Callahan LM,Rogers J,O'Banion MK. 1999. Cyclooxygenase-1 in human Alzheimer and control brain: Quantitative analysis of expression by microglia and CA3 hippocampal neurons. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 58: 11351146.
  • Yong VW,Rivest S. 2009. Taking advantage of the systemic immune system to cure brain diseases. Neuron 64: 5560.
  • Yoshitomi H,Sakaguchi N,Kobayashi K,Brown GD,Tagami T,Sakihama T,Hirota K,Tanaka S,Nomura T,Miki I,Gordon S,Akira S,Nakamura T,Sakaguchi S. 2005. A role for fungal {beta}-glucans and their receptor Dectin-1 in the induction of autoimmune arthritis in genetically susceptible mice. J Exp Med 201: 949960.
  • Ziegler-Heitbrock HW. 1995. Molecular mechanism in tolerance to lipopolysaccharide. J Inflammation 45: 1326.