A prominent signaling pathway in the development of neuropathic pain involves ATP acting on microglial purinergic receptors. Among the P2Y metabotropic receptors, we reported before that the P2Y12 receptor is upregulated in microglia following nerve injury and involved in the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, and in the development of pain behavior. In this study, we examined the expression of P2Y6, P2Y13, and P2Y14 receptors in the spinal cord and whether these receptors are involved in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain following peripheral nerve injury. We found that spared nerve injury induced a dramatic increase of not only P2Y12, but also P2Y6, 13, and 14 receptor mRNA expression in spinal microglia. The increase continued for at least 2 weeks after injury. To determine whether p38 MAPK can induce the expression of P2Y receptors, we administered intrathecally the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 and found that it significantly suppressed P2Y6, P2Y13, and P2Y14 but not P2Y12 mRNAs. Intrathecal injection of the specific P2Y6 antagonist MRS2578, specific P2Y13 antagonist MRS2211 or P2Y14 antisense LNA, attenuated mechanical pain hypersensitivity. Themixture of three antagonists for P2Y6, 12, and 13 showed a longer suppressive effect on pain behavior than the individual treatments. Our data demonstrate that ATP and other nucleotides may stimulate activated microglia with the upregulation of P2Y6, P2Y12, P2Y13, and P2Y14 receptors following nerve injury and these receptors are involved in the development of neuropathic pain. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.