The criterion validity of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) in a sample of self-referred elders with depressive symptomatology
Article first published online: 17 MAY 2004
Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Volume 19, Issue 6, pages 558–563, June 2004
How to Cite
Haringsma, R., Engels, G. I., Beekman, A. T. F. and Spinhoven, Ph. (2004), The criterion validity of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) in a sample of self-referred elders with depressive symptomatology. Int. J. Geriat. Psychiatry, 19: 558–563. doi: 10.1002/gps.1130
- Issue published online: 17 MAY 2004
- Article first published online: 17 MAY 2004
- Manuscript Accepted: 8 MAR 2004
- Manuscript Received: 23 OCT 2003
- The Dutch Health Research and Development Council (Zorg Onderzoek Nederland, ZON). Grant Number: 98-04-56
The criterion validity of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D) was assessed in a group of elderly Dutch community-residents who were self-referred to a prevention program for depression.
Paper-and-pencil administration of the CES-D to 318 elders (55–85 years). Criterion validity was evaluated with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a clinical diagnostic interview based on DSM-IV. Sensitivity and specificity for various cut-off scores of CES-D were compared with the DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) and with clinically relevant depression (CRD), a composite diagnosis of MDD, subthreshold depression or dysthymia. Furthermore the characteristics of true versus false positives were analyzed.
For MDD, the optimal cut-off score was 25, (sensitivity 85%, specificity 64%, and positive predicted value of 63%). For CRD, the optimal cut-off was 22 (sensitivity 84%, specificity 60%, and positive predicted value 77%). True positives, MDD and CRD, reported significantly more anxiety symptomatology and more co-morbid anxiety disorders, false positives reported more previous depressive episodes.
The criterion validity of the CES-D for MDD and CRD was satisfactory in this semi-clinical sample of elders. Subjects scoring ≥25 constitute a target group for further diagnostic assessment in order to determine appropriate treatment. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.