• aggression;
  • problem behaviour;
  • restraint;
  • staff training;
  • dementia;
  • nursing home



Use of restraint amongst institutionalised elderly with dementia and problem behaviour not only remains widespread, but also appears to be accepted as inevitable.


The aim of this study was to reduce problem behaviour and the use of restraint in demented patients using a staff training program as intervention.


The study was a randomised single-blind controlled trial and took place in Stavanger, Norway. Four nursing homes were randomised to a control or an intervention group after stratification for size. The intervention consisted of a full day seminar, followed by a one-hour session of guidance per month over six months. The content of the educational program focused on the decision making process in the use of restraint and alternatives to restraint consistent with professional practice and quality care. The primary outcome measures were number of restraints per patient in the nursing homes in one week and agitation as measured with the Brief Agitation Rating Scale (BARS). These were rated before and immediately after the intervention was completed. The assessments were performed blind to design and randomisation group.


Clinical and demographic variables did not differ between the intervention and control groups at baseline. After the intervention period, the number of restraints had declined by 54% in the treatment group, and increased by 18% in the control group. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant ( p = 0.013). There was a trend towards higher BARS score in the intervention compared to the control group at follow up ( p = 0.052).


Although the level of agitated behaviour remained unchanged or increased slightly, the educational program led to a significant reduction of the use of restraint in institutionalised elderly with dementia. These results suggest that educational programs can improve the quality of care of people with dementia. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.