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Keywords:

  • Addenbrooke's;
  • ACE;
  • Frontotemporal dementia;
  • Alzheimer's disease;
  • cognitive evaluation;
  • education;
  • Spanish

Abstract

Background

The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE) is a brief cognitive test battery designed to detect and differentiate Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Translations of this instrument into French and Malayalam have been recently published

Objective

To adapt and validate the ACE into Spanish in a rural population of low-educational level.

Subjects

A clinical group, composed of 70 patients affected by dementia and 25 patients with memory complaints without dementia, was compared with 72 controls matched for gender, age and educational level

Method

The clinical group was studied with standard neuropsychological instruments, all patients underwent neuroimaging [Computerized Tomography (CT) or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPECT) in all cases of suspected FTD], as well as routine neurological examination. Both groups were studied with the ACE and Clinical Dementia Rating scale (CDR). Sensitivity, specificity, area under curve, reliability and Verbal-Language/ Orientation-Memory (VLOM) ratio were calculated. Subsequently, the sample was stratified regarding educational level in two groups. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves were calculated for these conditions. Different cut-off points were calculated addressing educational level.

Results

ROC curves demonstrated the superiority of the ACE in the sub sample of patients that finished school at over 14 years old. VLOM ratio confirmed its usefulness for differential diagnosis between AD and FTD

Conclusions

The Spanish version of the ACE is a useful instrument for dementia diagnosis. In our sample VLOM ratio results were useful for differential diagnosis between AD and FTD. Different cut-off points must be used for different educational levels. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.