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The prevalence and associated demographic factors of dementia from a cross-sectional community survey in Kingston, Jamaica




Using a cross-sectional community survey, the authors aimed to estimate the prevalence of dementia among a sample of older Jamaicans and to identify associated demographic factors.


From February to July 2010, persons of age ≥60 years were randomly selected from two communities in Kingston, Jamaica and screened with the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE). All MMSE-positive participants and an equal number of matched MMSE-negative participants underwent definitive diagnostic evaluation for dementia using the Clinical and Diagnostic Assessment Procedure for Dementia. Subsequently derived MMSE sensitivity and specificity measures from the subsample were used to estimate the overall prevalence of dementia (primary outcome). Chi square, Fisher's Exact, Exact, Spearman's correlation and t-tests were used to explore associations of dementia with age, gender, educational level and socioeconomic status. Statistical significance was taken as p < 0.05.


Two hundred participants were recruited. Age-standardized prevalence rates of dementia were 5.07% (standardized to the Jamaican population) and 5.32% (standardized to the West Europe population). Dementia was more prevalent among older persons (Spearman's rho = 0.31; p < 0.001); no other significant associations were found.


Dementia prevalence found in this study is lower than figures from previous Caribbean reports. The older persons are disproportionately affected. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.