Age, gender, and education are associated with cognitive performance in an older Israeli sample with type 2 diabetes
Article first published online: 8 AUG 2013
Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Volume 29, Issue 3, pages 299–309, March 2014
How to Cite
Guerrero-Berroa, E., Ravona-Springer, R., Schmeidler, J., Silverman, J. M., Sano, M., Koifmann, K., Preiss, R., Hoffman, H., Heymann, A. and Schnaider Beeri, M. (2014), Age, gender, and education are associated with cognitive performance in an older Israeli sample with type 2 diabetes. Int. J. Geriat. Psychiatry, 29: 299–309. doi: 10.1002/gps.4008
- Issue published online: 11 FEB 2014
- Article first published online: 8 AUG 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 26 JUN 2013
- Manuscript Received: 22 MAR 2013
- NIA. Grant Numbers: R01 AG034087, P50 AG05138
- Alzheimer's Association. Grant Number: NIRG-11-205083
- cognitive functioning;
- older adults
To evaluate the relationships of age, education, and gender with performance on neuropsychological tests in a cognitively intact, older Israeli sample with type 2 diabetes (T2D).
We examined 862 participants, 65–84 years old, enrolled in the Israel Diabetes and Cognitive Decline study. Multiple regression assessed associations of performance on 17 neuropsychological tests, including the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease neuropsychological battery, with age, education, and gender.
Higher education and younger age were consistently associated with better performance. Women outperformed men on all memory tasks; men outperformed women on two non-verbal measures. These patterns of demographic associations with cognitive performance were very similar to those of US cohorts.
In a cognitively intact, older Israeli sample with T2D, better test performance is associated primarily with higher education, followed by younger age and gender differences. Although T2D is associated with cognitive deficits, it recapitulates the patterns of relationships between cognitive performance and demographic characteristics seen in non-T2D diabetic samples. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.