Daily crosswords improve verbal fluency: a brief intervention study
Article first published online: 3 FEB 2014
Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Volume 29, Issue 9, pages 915–919, September 2014
How to Cite
2014), Daily crosswords improve verbal fluency: a brief intervention study, Int J Geriatr Psychiatry, 29, 915–919. doi: 10.1002/gps.4079, , and (
- Issue published online: 8 AUG 2014
- Article first published online: 3 FEB 2014
- Manuscript Accepted: 23 DEC 2013
- Manuscript Revised: 12 DEC 2013
- Manuscript Received: 1 AUG 2013
- verbal fluency;
- cognitive reserve;
Phonemic verbal fluency (PVF) is a cognitive function that involves serial processes termed clustering and switching and which is impacted in both normal aging and dementia. The cognitive reserve hypothesis suggests that appropriate cognitive stimulation could maintain or improve cognitive performance. This study examines the effect on PVF performance of a brief crossword-based intervention in a cognitively normal, community-based sample.
Thirty-seven members of active retirement groups volunteered to participate and were randomly assigned to a crossword group and a control group. The former attempted a crossword daily for 4 weeks while the latter kept a daily gratitude diary for the same period.
2 × 2 mixed analyses of variance revealed that the crossword group performed significantly better over time than the control group in both total PVF score and in the cluster size component.
Daily crosswords may be a simple and effective means of bolstering PVF performance in older people. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.