Neuropsychiatric disturbance in Alzheimer's disease clusters into three groups: the Cache County study
Article first published online: 23 NOV 2001
Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Volume 16, Issue 11, pages 1043–1053, November 2001
How to Cite
Lyketsos, C. G., Sheppard, J.-M. E., Steinberg, M., Tschanz, J. A. T., Norton, M. C., Steffens, D. C. and Breitner, J. C. S. (2001), Neuropsychiatric disturbance in Alzheimer's disease clusters into three groups: the Cache County study. Int. J. Geriat. Psychiatry, 16: 1043–1053. doi: 10.1002/gps.448
- Issue published online: 23 NOV 2001
- Article first published online: 23 NOV 2001
- Manuscript Accepted: 13 FEB 2001
- Manuscript Received: 27 DEC 2000
- National Institute of Health. Grant Numbers: R01-AG11380, R01-MH56511
- Alzheimer's disease;
- behavioral disturbance;
We investigated the frequency and inter-relationship of neuropsychiatric disturbances in a population sample of persons suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD).
Screening 5,092 elderly residents (90% of the population aged 65 and older) of Cache County, Utah, for dementia, we identified 198 persons with AD using a comprehensive neuropsychiatric examination protocol. This examination included the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), a widely used measure of dementia-associated neuropsychiatric disturbances.
Overall, 60% of individuals with AD reported one or more neuropsychiatric symptoms. A latent class analysis revealed that these participants could be classified into three groups (classes) based on their neuropsychiatric symptom profile. The largest class included cases with no neuropsychiatric symptoms (40%) or with a mono-symptomatic disturbance (19%). A second class (28%) exhibited a predominantly affective syndrome, while a third class (13%) had a psychotic syndrome.
Data from this first US population-based study of AD-associated neuropsychiatric disturbances suggest that a significant majority of persons with AD suffer from one or more neuropsychiatric disturbance. Based on phenomenological study, the spectrum of neuropsychiatric symptoms in AD can be empirically classified into three groups: an affective syndrome, a psychotic syndrome and other neuropsychiatric disturbance. The biologic and predictive validity of this classification merits further investigation. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.