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Geophysical Research Letters

Extratropical forcing of ENSO


Corresponding author: G. Boschat, LOCEAN-IPSL, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, BP100-4 place Jussieu, FR-75252 Paris CEDEX 05, France. (


[1] We present evidence that sea surface temperatures in the North Pacific, South Atlantic, and South Indian Oceans during late boreal winter offer another important source of predictability for El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). This new SST predictor may provide accurate prediction of the amplitude of ENSO events before their onset, for both El Niño and La Niña events which occurred during recent decades.

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