Get access
Geophysical Research Letters

Sensitivities of immersion freezing: Reconciling classical nucleation theory and deterministic expressions

Authors

  • Barbara Ervens,

    Corresponding author
    1. Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado, USA
    2. Chemical Sciences Division, NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado, USA
    • Corresponding author: B. Ervens, Chemical Sciences Division, NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, CO, USA. (barbara.ervens@noaa.gov)

    Search for more papers by this author
  • Graham Feingold

    1. Chemical Sciences Division, NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado, USA
    Search for more papers by this author

Abstract

[1] Ice particle number concentrations are often described deterministically, i.e., ice nucleation is singular and occurs on active sites unambiguously at a given temperature. Other approaches are based on classical nucleation theory (CNT) that describes ice nucleation stochastically as a function of time and nucleation rate. Sensitivity studies of CNT for immersion freezing performed here show that ice nucleation has by far the lowest sensitivity to time as compared to temperature, ice nucleus (IN) diameter, and contact angle. Sensitivities generally decrease with decreasing temperature. Our study helps to reconcile the apparent differences in stochastic and singular freezing behavior, and suggests that over a wide range of temperatures and IN parameters, time-independent CNT-based expressions for immersion freezing may be derived for use in large-scale models.

Get access to the full text of this article

Ancillary